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Stop Breast Cancer From Spreading

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Last Updated: 26 October 2020

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General | Latest Info

What is breast cancer? Breast Cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the breast. It starts when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control. Breast Cancer cells usually form tumors that can often be seen on x-ray or felt as lump. Breast Cancer is most common in women, but men can get breast cancer, too. Breast cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body and grow there, too. When cancer cells do this, it is called metastasis. Cancer is always named based on the place where IT start. So even if breast cancer spreads to bones, it is still called breast cancer. Its not called bone cancer unless IT starts from cells in the bone. Biopsy: taking out small piece of tissue to see if there are cancer cells in IT breast reconstructive surgery: surgery that is done after mastectomy to make a breast shape that looks like a natural breast. Also called breast reconstruction. Ducts: small tubes in the breast that carry milk to the nipple. Dcis or ductal carcinoma in situ: Cancer that starts in duct cells but has not grow through duct walls into other tissue. Estrogen: female hormone that women's body makes until change of Life IBC or inflammatory breast Cancer: rare type of breast Cancer; often theres no lump or tumor IDC or invasive ductal carcinoma: breast Cancer that starts in the duct and grows through the wall of the duct. It can spread to other parts of the body. Ilc or invasive lobular carcinoma: breast Cancer that starts in milk glands. It can spread to other parts of the body. Lcis or lobular carcinoma in situ: breast change that starts in milk glands and has not grow through the wall of lobules; Having LCIS increases women's breast cancer risk lobules: glands in women's breasts that make milk. Lumpectomy: surgery to remove breast tumor and small amount of normal tissue around IT. Also called breast conservation surgery or partial mastectomy. Mastectomy: surgery to remove all of the breast and sometimes other nearby tissue metastasis: spread of cancer cells from where they start to other places in the body.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Honing in on a Treatment

HER2-targeted therapies are used to treat HER2-positive breast cancers.

Drug nameBrand name(s)Pill, injection under the skin, or IV drug (given by vein through an IV)?
TrastuzumabHerceptin (IV drug), Herceptin Hylecta (injection)IV drug or injection
PertuzumabPerjetaIV drug
Pertuzumab, trastuzumab and hyaluronidase-zzxfPhesgoInjection
Ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1)KadcylaIV drug
Fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan (trastuzumab deruxtecan)EnhertuIV drug
TucatinibTukysaPill
NeratinibNerlynxPill
LapatinibTykerbPill

Most women with stage IV breast Cancer are treated mainly with systemic therapy. This may include hormone therapy, Chemotherapy, target therapy, or some combination of these. Local treatments such as surgery or radiation might also be used to help prevent or treat symptoms. Stage IV cancers have spread beyond the breast and nearby lymph nodes to other parts of the body. When breast cancer spreads, it most commonly goes to the bones, liver, and lungs. It may also spread to the brain or other organs. Treatment options For stage IV breast Cancer For Women with stage IV breast Cancer, systemic therapies are the main treatments. These may include: Hormone therapy, Chemotherapy target drugs, such as Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab immunotherapy Some combination of these surgery and / or radiation therapy may be useful in certain situations. Treatment can often shrink tumors, improve symptoms, and help women live longer. These cancers are considered incurable. Systemic treatments for stage IV breast cancer treatment often continue until cancer starts growing again or until side effects become unacceptable. If this happen, other drugs might be try. Types of drugs used for stage IV breast Cancer depend on Hormone receptor status and HER2 status of Cancer: Hormone receptor-positive cancers Women with Hormone receptor-positive cancers are often treated first with Hormone therapy. This may be combined with targeted drugs such as CDK4 / 6 inhibitor, everolimus or PI3K inhibitor. Women who haven't yet gone through menopause are often treated with tamoxifen or with medicines that keep ovaries from making hormones along with other drugs. Because hormone therapy can take months to work, Chemo is often the first treatment for patients with serious problems from their cancer spread, such as breathing problems. Hormone receptor-negative cancers Chemo is the main treatment for women with Hormone receptor-negative cancers, because hormone therapy isnt helpful for these cancers. Her2-positive cancer Trastuzumab may help women with HER2-positive cancers live longer if it is given along with Chemo or with other medications such as hormonal therapy or other Anti-HER2 drugs. Pertuzumab, another targeted drug, might be added as well. Another option is target drug Lapatinib or Ado-Trastuzumab emtansine. Her2-negative cancers in women with BRCA gene mutation these women are typically treated with Chemotherapy. An option after getting Chemo is treatment with a targeted drug called PARP inhibitor, such as olaparib or talazoparib. Her2-negative breast cancers in women with PIK3CA mutation Alpelisib is a target drug know as PI3K inhibitor that can be used along with fulvestrant to treat postmenopausal women with advanced Hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Triple-negative breast Cancer Atezolizumab can be used along with Abraxane in people with advanced triple-negative breast cancer whose tumor make PD-L1 protein. For women with TNBC and BRCA mutation whose cancer no longer respond to common breast cancer chemo drugs, other chemo called platinum drugs may be consider.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

Table

CDK4/6 InhibitorSide Effects
AbemaciclibSome possible side effects include diarrhea, low white blood cell counts, low red blood cell counts (anemia), blood clots, nausea, abdominal pain, fatigue and vomiting. In some cases, it can cause liver problems. Your liver function will be checked before treatment begins and throughout your treatment. In rare cases, it can cause lung inflammation, which can cause death. Tell your provider right away if you have shortness of breath or other breathing problems while taking this drug.
PalbociclibSome possible side effects include low white blood cell counts, low red blood cell counts (anemia), fatigue, nausea, mouth sores, hair thinning, diarrhea and in rare cases, blood clots. In rare cases, it can cause lung inflammation, which can cause death. Tell your provider right away if you have shortness of breath or other breathing problems while taking this drug.
RibociclibSome possible side effects include low white blood cell counts, nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, hair loss, vomiting, constipation, headache and back pain. In some cases, it can cause liver problems. Your liver function will be checked before treatment begins and throughout your treatment. In rare cases, it can cause changes on an EKG (electrocardiogram). An EKG gives information on the electrical activity of the heart. You will get an EKG before treatment begins and throughout your treatment to check for any changes. In rare cases, it can cause lung inflammation, which can cause death. Tell your provider right away if you have shortness of breath or other breathing problems while taking this drug.

Table2

Tyrosine-Kinase InhibitorsSide Effects
Tucatinib, neratinib or lapatinibThe most common side effect is diarrhea. Your health care provider will recommend medications to help control the diarrhea. Other possible side effects include nausea, vomiting and fatigue. In rare cases, each of these drugs has been linked to liver problems. Your liver function will be checked throughout your treatment.

Table3

PARP InhibitorSide Effects
OlaparibSome possible side effects include low red blood cell counts (anemia), nausea, vomiting, fatigue and low white blood cell counts. In rare cases, it can cause acute myeloid leukemia.
TalazoparibSome possible side effects include fatigue, low red blood cell counts (anemia), nausea, vomiting, headache and diarrhea. In rare cases, it can cause acute myeloid leukemia.

Table4

Which tumors are tested?What does the tumor test determine?How do the test results guide treatment?
All tumorsHormone receptor status (estrogen and progesterone receptor status)If the cancer is hormone receptor-positive , the first treatment is usually hormone therapy , often with a CDK4/6 inhibitor .
All tumorsHER2 statusIf the cancer is HER2-positive, HER2-targeted therapies , such as trastuzumab (Herceptin), are included in the treatment plan.
Tumors that are both hormone receptor-positive and HER2-negativeWhether the tumor has a PIK3CA gene mutationIf the tumor has a PIK3CA gene mutation, the cancer may be treated with the PI3 kinase inhibitor alpelisib and the hormone therapy fulvestrant.
Triple negative breast cancers (tumors that are both hormone receptor-negative and HER2-negative)PD-L1 statusIf the cancer is PD-L1-positive, the first treatment may be the immunotherapy drug atezolizumab (Tecentriq) in combination with chemotherapy .
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The nonlinear path to metastasis

Landscape and corresponding Minimum Action paths for EMT-metastasis network are shown in three-dimensional and two-dimensional figures. Magenta solid lines represent MAP from state to I states, and to M state, and white solid lines represent MAP from M to I, and to state. Dash lines represent direct MAP from to M and from M to states, respectively.: Anti-metastatic state, M: metastatic state, I1, I2: intermediate state. Here, ZEB and BACH1 are selected as two coordinated transition path from state to M state and from M state to state in terms of expression levels of 10 different genes. Relative gene expressions are discretized to 0 or 1. 1 represents that corresponding genes are in on state and 0 represents that corresponding genes are in off state. The X-axis shows 10 time points along transition path sensitivity analysis for 26 key parameters on transition Action. The Y-axis represents 26 parameters. The X-axis represents the percentage of change of transition Action relative to S with default parameters. Here, S M > represents transition action from attractor M to attractor, and S > M represents transition action from attractor to attractor M. Each parameter is increased by 20%, individually. B Each parameter is decreased by 20%, individually. U145: miR145, u34: miR34, u200: miR200


Introduction

Metastases cause more than 90% of cancer patients ' death.S Spread of tumor cells to secondary sites of the body is a complex process involving reciprocal interaction between tumor cells and their microenvironment. Metastases are the result of a series of complex processes, including escape from primary tumor, invasion into adjacent tissue, hematogenous or lymphatic spread, establishment of micrometastases, and final outgrowth and colonization at distant sites of the body. Today, it is becoming widely accepted that the tumor microenvironment crucially affects cancer progression. The tumor microenvironment consists of not only cancer cells, all non-malignant cell types such as immune cells, fibroblasts, pericytes, endothelial cells, adipocytes, and mesenchymal stem cells, but also interstitial fluids and extracellular matrix. This review will summarize how ECM composition and structure, at both primary and secondary site, are key factors for successful metastatic spread. Ecm is a complex meshwork of macromolecules secreted by different cell types of tissue, made up of both proteins and proteoglycans with covalently attached sugar chains, glycosaminoglycans. Besides providing structural support for the organ, ECM is instrumental in modulating cell functions. Beyond direct interaction with cellular signaling receptors, network of macromolecules also functions as reservoirs for growth factors or signaling molecules, thus influencing cellular behavior indirectly. Together, ECM signaling can be involved in proliferation, migration, invasion, onset of angiogenesis, or resistance to apoptotic stimuli. In addition, ECM proteins can work as anchors and promote cellular adhesion. Moreover, fibers of ECM proteins such as collagens can build migration tracks for tumor cells. At the same time, ECM can function as barrier blocking, eg, penetration of immune cells into tumor, or it can create high interstitial fluid pressure preventing perfusion of drugs, which facilitates chemoresistance. In this review, we will first briefly introduce a handful of well-study ECM components and then describe their contribution to steps of metastatic cascade. On the protein side, focus will be on matricellular proteins periostin and tenascin C as well as on fibrillar collagen I. We will also look into the role played by unique GAG hyaluronan and its often partner-In-crime versican. Second, we will discuss therapeutic approaches that either directly target ECM components or their modification.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Freezing secondary cancers in humans

Treatment For secondary Breast Cancer in the liver aims to relieve symptoms and slow down the growth of cancer. When making decisions about how best to treat you, your treatment team will consider factors such as: how extensive the cancer is within your liver, whether cancer has spread to other organs, any symptoms you have, what treatment youve had for past cases of cancer, whether youve been through menopause your general health your specialist should discuss any recommendations For Treatment with you and take into account your wishes. They Theyll talk with you about your options, explain what aim of your treatment will be and help you weigh up potential benefits against possible side effects you may have. See our tips to help you feel confident you are getting the best care. Hormone Therapy is used to treat Breast Cancers that are oestrogen receptor positive. If you had biopsy or surgery for primary Breast Cancer, tissue removed will have been tested to see if it is ER +. However, in some people, oestrogen receptors change during development of secondary Breast Cancer. Because of this, your doctor may discuss performing a biopsy to retest for hormone receptors. Chemotherapy destroys cancer cells using anti-Cancer drugs. A number of chemotherapy drugs are used to treat secondary breast cancer. These drugs may be given alone or in combination. The drugs you offer will depend on many factors, including any chemotherapy you had in the past and how long ago it was. This is a group of drugs that block growth and spread of cancer. They target and interfere with processes in cells that help cancer grow. The type of Targeted Therapy you are offered will depend on the features of your Breast Cancer. Find out more about different types of Targeted Therapy. Drugs are the main treatment for secondary Breast Cancer in the liver. However, sometimes other treatments are used. These can treat cancer in the liver and help relieve symptoms, but will not treat cancer in other areas of the body, so may be useful for people whose secondary Breast Cancer only affects their liver. Although surgery will not cure secondary Breast Cancer in the liver, occasionally it may be part of the plan of treatment. Surgery is more likely to be performed if the area of secondary breast cancer in the liver is very small, can be easily accessed by surgeon and there is no other secondary breast cancer elsewhere in the body. However, in most cases, several areas of the liver are affected and surgery is not possible. Liver transplants are not an option for people who have secondary Breast Cancer. Thermal ablation or cryoablation can be used alone or in combination with surgery. These procedures involve destroying cancer cells by either heating or freezing them. For example, radiofrequency ablation involves inserting needle into individual tumours in the liver and destroying them with heat. Rfa is a specialist treatment and not widely available.


Metastatic breast cancer

Several pathways are involved in the development of triple-negative breast cancer from basal-like breast cancer cells. Main of them include loss in expression of several receptors by BRCA1-related pathway or random mutation. Tnbc accounts for 10-20% of all cases of breast carcinoma and is characterized by low expression of progesterone receptor, estrogen receptor, and HER2. Development of metastases in TBNC represents a highly complex and poorly understood process that includes multiple steps such as genetic and epigenetic alterations, angiogenesis, tumor-stroma interactions, intravasation through basement membrane, survival in circulation, and extravasation into distal tissues. Patients with TNBC have relatively poor outcome and cannot be treated with endocrine therapy or therapies targeted to HER2. Consequently, this type of metastatic breast cancer requires special treatment approaches. In addition, overexpression of EGFR protein specific to TNBC usually increases resistance of this type of cancer cells to conventional therapies. Therefore, suppression of this protein potentially enhances efficacy of treatment of TNBC. Small interfering RNA target to EGFR mRNA can be used for this aim. However, it is known that naked siRNA is not stable in the blood stream and inside cancer cells. Moreover, it possess very poor ability to penetrate inside cancer cells. Fortunately, nanotechnology approaches can be used for effective delivery of siRNA as well as conventional anticancer therapies inside TNBCs. Such approach proposed in our laboratory is described below.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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