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Survival Of Human Coronaviruses 229e And Oc43

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

The treatment of infectious diseases is currently facing a crisis. Widespread antibiotic resistance has reduced therapeutic options against bacterial pathogens. However, there is also a significant threat from reemerging, newly evolving, and zoonotic viral pathogens. In addition, new technologies are also able to identify previously unknown pathogenic viruses. The majority of these are RNA viruses that transmit through the mucosal or respiratory route and manifest as respiratory disease. Respiratory viruses can cause a wide range of lung disorders ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infections to more - severe life - threatening pathologies, including bronchiolitis, fever, pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. The World Health Organization estimates that there are 450 million cases of pneumonia per year resulting in 4 million deaths, and approximately 200 million of these are cases of viral community - acquire pneumonia. Common viruses include respiratory syncytial virus, rhinoviruses, influenza virus, parainfluenzavirus, and coronaviruses. Coinfections with two or more pathogens and comorbidities often affect disease severity and prognosis and complicate initial diagnosis. Many coronavirus species are important animal pathogens and are often host species specific. In humans, several species, eg, human coronavirus 229E and NL63 and HKU1 and OC43, are common causes of upper respiratory tract infection. There is an ever - present risk of pathogens emerging from animal reservoirs that have attain ability to infect humans. Risk can be increased when individuals have continuous and close contact with animals; also, climate change can change the distribution of insect vectors and hosts. In 2003, highly pathogenic coronavirus believed to have originated in bats and palm civet cats transferred to humans in Guangdong Province, China, resulting in cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Over 8 000 people were infected in 37 different countries, but mostly in Southeast Asia, with a 10% mortality. Inefficient human - to - human transmission, severe restrictions on air travel, closure of many wild - animal markets, and quarantine procedures have successfully contained outbreak so far. However, zoonotic transmission of coronavirus from reservoirs in bats and possibly camels gave rise to severe respiratory infection in individuals in the Arabian Peninsula in 2012. The Resulting Middle East respiratory syndrome, which affects the lower respiratory tract, is clinically similar to SARS but pathologically different. Ubiquitous host cell receptors often lead to extrapulmonary disease, often in the kidneys, and viral progeny are released through apical and basolateral respiratory cell surfaces, contributing to a high mortality rate. Late uncontrolled inflammation leads to severe pathologies which are not dependent on viral load, and human - to - human spread does occur. This, combined with low infectious dose, suggests that transmission of very few virus particles via person - to - person or contact with contaminated surfaces may be infection risk. Although camels and associated food products have been found to contain viruses, recent studies of individuals constantly in contact with infected herds suggest that zoonotic transmission is rare but that risk may be highest from juvenile animals.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

RESULTS

Until recently, coronaviruses were considered to cause only mild diseases in humans. Two Human coronaviruses are know, HCoV OC43 and HCoV 229E. These viruses are responsible for about 25% of human colds and are spread by respiratory route. Unlike rhinoviruses, they cause not only upper respiratory tract infections but sometimes lower respiratory tract infections as well, which are more serious. There is weak evidence that coronaviruses might also cause gastroenteritis in humans, because there have been reports of coronaviruses in the stools of people suffering from gastroenteritis. The status of coronaviruses as human disease agents changed with the recent isolation of two new human coronaviruses, NL63 and HKU1, and with the 2003 epidemic of SARS. Nl63 is an important cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in both adults and children. Hku1 has been isolated from adults with pneumonia. Sars causes atypical pneumonia that carries a 10% fatality rate. It is a bat virus that jump to humans in China, causing an epidemic of SARS that began in 2002. In 2003, it was spread around the world by air travelers, eventually causing more than 8000 cases of human disease and almost 800 deaths. It was eventually controlled by culling of animals that serve as intermediates in passing virus from bats to humans, and by quarantine procedures. There is concern that epidemics will recur since the virus is widely distributed in China. This topic is covered in more detail in Chapter 8. Coronaviruses for many other animals are know, including mice, chickens, pigs, and cats. Diseases associated with various coronaviruses in these animals include respiratory disease, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, and syndrome similar to multiple sclerosis of humans, as well as other illnesses. The Mouse hepatitis virus has been particularly well studied as a model for genus. Feline infectious peritonitis Coronavirus has also been intensively study. This virus causes severe infection of cats that is often fatal. It is immunosuppressive and high fatality rate results from inability to control infection such that viral replication eventually reaches very high levels. Vaccination of cats with either structural proteins or nonstructural proteins does not protect animals. In fact, vaccination with structural proteins makes subsequent infection with live viruses more severe. Persistent infection is observed in most animals, and there is evidence that viruses remain even in animals that eventually control infection since virus replication can resume if animals are immunosuppressed. There are some parallels with SARS infection of humans, in that T - cell lymphopenia and viral persistence have been report.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The first case of SARS was discovered in Foshan, China, in November 2002. 6 Infections occur through either direct or indirect contact with patients. By July 2003, SARS - COV had spread to over 30 countries, 12 causing 8096 reported cases and 774 deaths. After that, no additional infections were detect, and the SARS pandemic was declared over. Sars - COV was first isolated from Himalayan palm civets from live - animal market in Guangdong, China. 12 14 Other animals, such as raccoon dogs, along with human workers from the same market, also show evidence of viral infection. 12 Multiple studies have demonstrated that reservoirs of several coronaviruses, including SARS - COV - like and MERS - COV - like viruses, were Bats. 8 15 Although palm civets might have been intermediary hosts of SARS - COV, 16 Researchers often conclude there was no evidence that these animals were ultimate sources of SARS - COV, and viruses cannot circulate directly in palm civets in the wild. 17 in 2003, Guan and Zhengs team investigated the live - animal retail market in Guangdong, focusing on recently captured wild animals and human consumption. Animals sampled include seven wild and one domestic animal species. They collect nasal and fecal samples with swabs and then use reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction to test for viral nucleic acid from N gene of Human SARS - COV. Rt - PCR assay results show that samples from four of six HPCs were positive; other seven species samples were negative. 12 MERS - COV was first found in 2012 in lung sample from a 60 - year - old patient WHO died of respiratory failure in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. On 15 September 2012, similar type of virus named Human coronavirus was isolated from patient with severe respiratory infection. Cases have also been reported in other countries. 18 MERS has a 35% mortality rate, and since it emerged in the human population in June 2012, it has caused substantial morbidity and mortality. 19 20 From 2012 until January 15 2020, total number of laboratory - confirmed MERS - COV infection cases reported globally To World Health Organization was 2506, with 862 associated deaths, covering 27 countries. Cases of MERS from other countries were linked to travel to the Middle East. 20 21 MERS - COV was identified in the saliva of patient with acute pneumonia and Renal failure in Jeddah. Mers - COV can be detected in respiratory tract secretions, as well as in feces, serum, and urine. 22 23 24 in addition, it has been isolated from environmental objects such as bedsheets, bedrails, intravenous fluid hangers, and X - ray devices. 25 in the case of known camel infection, MERS - COV was transmitted from camel to human,s which was confirmed by RNA Sequencing. 26 at end of December 2019, first clusters of patients with pneumonia caused by SARS - COV - 2 were reported in Wuhan, China. 27 basic reproduction number of SARS - COV - 2 is approximately 2. 2, indicating that each patient would on average spread infection to 2. 2 people. 28 Human - To - Human transmission of SARS - COV - 2 occurs rapidly, and atypical symptoms during early stage may be further disadvantage.


INTRODUCTION

Coronaviruses belong to the family of Coronaviridae that includes four genera: alpha Coronavirus, beta Coronavirus, gamma Coronavirus, and delta Coronavirus. Alpha - and - CoVs can infect mammals, and two others can infect birds as well as mammals. Seven CoVs have been known to infect humans so far. Four of them, HCoV - 229E, HCoV - OC43, HCoV - NL63, and HCoV - HKU1, lead to self - limited upper respiratory tract infection. Middle East respiratory syndrome - Coronavirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 1 both cause lower respiratory tract infection and lead to severe respiratory syndrome. During the last few months, outbreak of pneumonia with unknown origin and etiology was identified in Wuhan city, most populous city in central China with a population of more than 11 million, in Hubei Province on 31 December 2019. It was acknowledged that the outbreak resulted from the novel Coronavirus; first, it was named as 2019 - nCoV2 and recently referred to as severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2, and its related disease is now entitled CoV disease 2019 by WHO. During the last two decades, in addition to severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 and Middle East respiratory syndrome - Coronavirus, this is the third highest pathogenic HCoV with pandemic spread and now has a total of 2 626 321 confirmed cases with pneumonia and 181 938 deaths worldwide, 2020b, Al - Rabiaah et Al. 2020. This virus has several properties that make it difficult to deal with these properties including non - particular aspects of disease, long incubation period, infectivity even before symptoms appear in incubation duration, contagious nature of this virus infection even in asymptomatic infected people, and extended disease period and transmission. More so, recovery might start about 2 or 3 weeks following infection singhal 2020. On 30 January 2020, responding to rapid growth of this viral outbreak and confirming human - to - human contagion, WHO stated public health emergency of international concern peng et Al. 2020. As there is no approved treatment for this viral infection, prevention is essential singhal 2020; Smatti et Al. 2018. Environment conditions play an important role in the spread of infectious viruses also, control of viruses infections is an issue of major concern and great challenge. Introducing optimized disinfection methods is vital to prevent and minimize infection spread abreu et Al. 2013. In recent decades, requirements as to antimicrobial activities of disinfectants in medical settings have been appointed based on various criterions. In addition, guidelines have been prepared to recommend people and hospitals to fully clear and disinfect environmental and medical instrument surfaces on a regular basis pitten et Al. 2003; Carling et Al. 2008. In the current SARS - CoV - 2 pandemic, identification of chemical and / or physical disinfectants that interrupt virus transmission routes including human - to - human, spread via respiratory droplets, and contaminate hands or surfaces are of utmost importance. Therefore, present SR attempts to provide sufficient information and strategies for viral inactivation disinfection methods and determine virus survival in different environmental conditions and control and prevention strategies.


DISCUSSION

Considering results of included studies, different chemical disinfectant compounds such as Sterillium Rub / Gel containing ethanol with different concentration, 2 - propanol Sterillium, ammonia disinfection at 25% NH 3 in hatchery waste, didecyl - dimethyl - ammonium chloride, Sterillium, glutaraldehyde, and povidone iodine could readily inactivate different Coronavirus strain infectivity in less than 60 s by approximately more and equal 4 log 10 in suspension test. Hydrogen peroxide vapor as a gas - phase disinfectant requires 2 - 3h contact time to inactivate Coronavirus. Only household bleach with minimal concentration of sodium hypochlorite of 0. 21% was effective in inactivating viruses in the 30 s. On other hand, sodium hypochlorite 0. 5% require more contact time to inactivate the virus. Disinfectants such as formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde also require more contact time for destruction of Coronavirus. It has previously suggested that log 10 viral reduction of more than 3 is the benchmark for efficient virucidal activity for coronaviruses on surfaces;. Therefore, these chemical disinfectants could meet this benchmark to inactivate coronaviruses. In addition to chemical disinfectant, in present SR, reviewed studies report that efficiency of physical disinfectant including temperature, gamma irradiation using cobalt - 60 source at 1 Mrad, and disinfection of virus in human plasma by amotosalen and ultraviolet were effective for inactivating Coronavirus in short contact time. One study reported multiple - emitter, automate, continuous, whole - room UV - C disinfection system for surface disinfection in 5 - and 10 - min contact time with more than 99. 999% efficiency. In recent guidelines published by WHO, it is recommended to ensure that environmental cleaning and disinfection procedures are followed consistently and correctly. Completely cleaning environmental surfaces with water and suitable detergent and application of commonly - used hospital level disinfectants such as sodium hypochlorite are effective and sufficient procedures 2020b. In addition to our data in present SR, WHO also recommends concentration of 70% ethanol for disinfection of small surfaces WHO 2014. Who recommends two alcohol - based hand rubs for disinfection of hands. Formulations of recommended hand rubs of WHO were ethanol with 80% concentration or 2 - propanol with 75% concentration and were reported to be very effective in inactivation of SARS - CoV - 1 and MERS - CoV in suspension test Siddharta et al. 2017. It has previously reported that in human disease - control programs, chemical disinfectants have been widely used to prevent viral infectious diseases.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Virus Enveloped

Table

VirusCoronavirus
StructureEnveloped
FamilyCoronaviridae
Host(s)Humans
Disease(s) CausedMild to severe respiratory illness
SymptomsCough, runny/stuffy nose, fever, sore throat, headache, diarrhea
Potential ComplicationsPneumonia, death
Transmission ModeClose person-to-person contact, contaminated fomites
Sites of Community OutbreaksSchools, hospitals, daycare centers

Study, by Sattar et al., Evaluated efficiency of 15 antiseptics - disinfectants of various chemical families on four different viruses: two non - enveloped viruses and two enveloped viruses. With this aim in view, viral inocula were suspended in feces or mucin to mimic organic matter and left to dry on stainless - steel disks. Contact time was 1 min and the efficacy criterion was reduction in viral titers from 3 to 10. Results are gathered in Table 2. This study highlights the fact that enveloped viruses are more sensitive than non - enveloped viruses to action of antiseptics - disinfectants, despite sensitivity discrepancies within each group. However, enveloped viruses are not that fragile and they are not inactivated by a number of antiseptics - disinfectants such as quaternary ammonium compound or phenolic compounds. Association chlorhexidine and cetrimide, widely used in human medicine, do not seem to be effective on HCoV 229E, except if ethanol is add. A more recent study investigated action of antiseptics - disinfectants on HCoVs 229E and OC43 with suspension tests and contact times of 5 min. Neutralization step was achieved by dilution in medium culture. Povidone - iodine caused a 50% reduction in infectivity of both viruses, which is not enough to claim virucidal activity. Moreover, to obtain a 50% reduction in HCoV 229E titers, tenfold increase in concentration of povidone - iodine was require. Some other products were assayed but without success because they interfere with biological viral titration assay. This also highlights the importance of neutralization step and the necessity of developing means to eliminate toxicity of tested products. This result was also confirmed on SARS - COV by Kariwa et al. Who test different formulations of povidone - iodine with suspension tests and contact times of 1 and 2 min. The neutralization step was achieved chemically by the addition of sodium thiosulfate. All formulations reduce viral infectivity under detectable level after 2 min of contact - time. The same result was obtained with 70% ethanol in 1 min. Two other studies conducted in our laboratory concern HCoV 229E and its sensitivity to two widely used antiseptics, chlorhexidine and hexamidine, but also to new molecules belonging to the calixarene family. In these studies, antiseptic antiviral activities were assayed thanks to suspension tests and the efficacy criterion was reduction from 4 to 10, as recommended by European Standard. A novel methodology of gel filtration For neutralization step was developed in these studies, using homemade and reproducible Sephadex columns. Chlorhexidine was shown to have time and concentration - dependent anti - HCoV 229E activity allowing 3 log 10 reduction, but only after 60 min contact time. It was then not sufficient to claim antiseptic anti - HCoV 229E activity. Hexamidine does not show any activity against HCoV 229E. These results highlight the necessity of evaluating the activity of commonly used antiseptics - disinfectants against different viruses, to be sure of their efficiency and to develop targeted antisepsis, and developing new active noncytotoxic molecules.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

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Importance of Coronaviruses

Clustering of spiked protein of each Coronavirus. Fifty - four spike protein sequences filtered from each Coronavirus coding sequences were CLuster using CLANS program on website of MPI Bioinformatics Toolkit. Each color dot represents the spike protein sequence of each Coronavirus. Dots in same color mean they are of the same genus, and each line shows similarity between two sequences, with darker lines indicating higher similarity. The Coronaviridae family includes the following genera: Alphacoronavirus; Betacoronavirus; Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus. Indicated SARS - COV, MERS - COV, and SARS - COV - 2 belong to genus of Betacoronavirus pathogenesis of SARS - COV, MERS - COV, and SARS - COV - 2. Sars - COV and SARS - COV - 2 play a pathogenic role by inhibiting ACE2. Under the influence of renin and ACE, angiotensinogen is converted into Ang II. Through AT1 receptor, Ang II acts as a lung injury - promoting factor, and in some cases, may cause vascular constriction, inflammatory response, cell proliferation, fibrosis, and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells, resulting in diseases such as pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, and acute lung injury. Ace2 converts Ang II into Ang, and through MAS receptor, Ang plays roles in vasodilation, antiproliferative activity, and antioxidant activity. Sars - COV downregulates activity of ACE2 and causes an increase in the amount of Ang II and lung injury. Mers - COV infection of dendritic cells and macrophages can lead to continuous production of pro - inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, leading to large number of immune cells infiltrating patients ' lower respiratory tract, causing severe inflammation and tissue damage. Mers - COV can infect T - cells from human lymphoid organs and cause peripheral blood inducing apoptosis by intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, thus avoiding host immune response targets of different drug candidates against three Coronaviruses. Common targets against three Coronaviruses are mainly S protein and S1 / S2 subunits, PL protein, RdRp, 3CL protein, and Helicase. Figures show drug candidates and vaccines. Among them, Remdesivir has been trending in the news recently. It inhibits RdRp, is in phase III of SARS - COV - 2, and may have effect on three viruses. Ribavirin in combination with Pegylated interferon may also have an effect against three viruses. Ritonavir and Lopinavir, which inhibit 3CLpro and are in phase III of SARS - COV - 2, have effect on both SARS - COV - 2 and MERS - COV. Dna vaccines and vaccines based on S protein or subunits of S protein are in development.

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2 ENVIRONMENTAL SPREAD OF CORONAVIRUSES

Environmental surfaces have been recognized as likely contributors to transmission of nosocomial Viral infections. The question of whether hospital surfaces play a role in the spread of nosocomial Viral infection take on particular urgency during worldwide outbreak of severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Sars was a novel coronavirus infection, and local and institutional outbreaks were driven in part by nosocomial spread; cases of SARS were documented in health care workers, patients, and visitors in health care facilities. During outbreaks in health care facilities, surface sampling for SARS coronavirus revealed SARS - CoV nucleic acids on surfaces and inanimate objects. This suggests that surfaces could be sources of virus transmission. Assessment of risk posed by SARS - CoV on surfaces requires data on survival of the virus on environmental surfaces and data on how this survival is affected by environmental variables, such as air temperature and relative humidity. Because working with SARS - CoV requires specially trained personnel working under biosafety level 3 laboratory containment conditions, there are significant challenges in studying this virus, and only limited data on its survival and response to environmental stressors are available. Use of surrogate coronaviruses has potential to overcome these challenges and expand available data on coronavirus survival on surfaces. In addition to SARS - CoV, there are two pathogenic human coronaviruses that are adapted to propagation and assay in cell culture, 229E and OC43, which could serve as surrogates for SARS - CoV in survival studies. However, previous studies suggest that survival of 229E and OC43 on surfaces may be shorter than that of SARS - CoV. To evaluate surrogates that might serve as more conservative models of SARS - CoV on surfaces, animal coronaviruses were chosen as surrogates for this study. Because SARS - CoV does not fall clearly into either of two groups of mammalian coronaviruses, following two potential surrogates representing two groups were evaluate: transmissible gastroenteritis virus, diarrheal pathogen of swine and member of coronavirus group 1, and mouse hepatitis virus, Respiratory and Enteric pathogen of laboratory mice and member of coronavirus group 2. Advantages of using these two viruses as surrogates are the fact that they can be readily propagated and assayed in cell culture systems and the fact that there is no human infection risk. There has been some study of TGEV survival in aerosols, but data on environmental survival of this potential coronavirus surrogate for SARS - CoV is limit. Use of surrogates for studying environmental survival of SARS - CoV can increase our understanding of survival and persistence of this virus on environmental surfaces, possible role of such surfaces in transmission of SARS - CoV and other coronaviruses, and risk posed by contaminated surfaces in outbreak settings. Therefore, this work was undertaken to determine the effect of AT and RH on survival of surrogate coronaviruses TGEV and MHV on hard nonporous surfaces. Copyright 2010 American Society For Microbiology

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2.4 Coronavirus survival in sewage

In this section, we highlight the potency of Coronaviruses to survive in different conditions, despite their enveloped nature. This knowledge is essential for better understanding of the possibility of virus transfer and cross - contamination, and for formulating appropriate infection - control measures. Indeed, despite the fact that transmission was believed to be mainly achieved by direct physical contact with infected patient or by respiratory droplets, several well - described clusters of infection were difcult to be explained by these routes. Examples include transmissions of 22 people on aircraft, to 13 guests sharing the same oor of hotel, and more than 300 people in an apartment complex. These observations lead to some speculation about possible transmission by other means including surfaces, hands, etc., And to study of SARS - CoV survival in different conditions. Despite the fact that this review is devoted to Human Coronaviruses, some data concerning murine hepatitis virus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus, now called alphacoronavirus 1, are recorded here because they have been used as SARS - CoV surrogates. Some decades ago, study compared survival rates of HCoV 229E to ones of non - envelop virus, type 1 - poliovirus, under different conditions of temperature and humidity. Results are reported in Table 1. Thus, at 20 C, aerosolize HCoV 229E was found to better survive at 50% relative humidity than at 30%. Indeed, nearly 20% of the original infectious viruses were still detectable after six days. High relative humidity seems less favorable to virus, unless the temperature comes down to 6 C. At this temperature, survival of HCoV 229E was significantly enhanced by matter rate of relative humidity. This enhanced survival rate at high relative humidity and low temperature may explain winter propagation of Coronaviruses. Moreover, HCoV 229E survival was significantly higher at 30% and 50% of relative humidity than those of poliovirus in the same experimental conditions, which could be a striking result according to its non - enveloped nature. Sensitivity of SARS - CoV to temperature has also been assay. Exposure of the virus to a temperature of 56 C over 30 min reduces virus titer to an undetectable level, except if SARS - CoV is associated with proteins, such as 20% fetal calf serum, which bring protection to the virus. In this case, temperature needs to reach 60 C over 30 min to bring the virus titer below the detection limit. This emphasizes the importance of organic material in which viruses can be embed in real conditions and could protect viruses mostly from disinfection procedures. When the virus was place at 4 C, there was no loss of infectivity. Another study confirmed viral stability at 4 C, and also at 20 C and 37 C for at least 2 hrs, but SARS - CoV loses its infectivity after 90 60 and 30 min exposure at 56 C, 67 C and 75 C, respectively. Coronaviruses also survive in suspension.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

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Sources

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