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Survival Rate For Prostate Cancer

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Last Updated: 16 November 2020

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General | Latest Info

Prostate Cancer is one of the most common types of cancer that develop in men and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men, behind lung Cancer and just ahead of colorectal Cancer. The Prognosis for Prostate Cancer, as with any cancer, depends on how advanced the cancer has become, according to established stage designations. Prostate gland is a walnut-size gland present only in men, found in the pelvis below the bladder. Prostate gland wraps around urethra and lies in front of the rectum. Prostate gland secretes part of the liquid portion of semen, or seminal fluid, which carries sperm made by testes. Fluid is essential to reproduction. The Term to Stage Cancer is meant to describe the evident extent of cancer in the body at the time that cancer is first diagnose. Clinical staging of Prostate Cancer is based on pathology results, physical examination, PSA, and, if appropriate, radiologic studies. Stage Of Cancer helps doctors understand the extent of cancer and plan Cancer Treatment. Knowing overall results of different treatments for similarly stag prostate cancers can help doctors and patients make important decisions about choices of treatment to recommend or to accept. Prostate Cancer comprises nearly all of adenocarcinoma cells-cells that arise from glandular tissue. Cancer cells are named according to the organ in which they originate, no matter where in the body we find such cells. If Prostate Cancer cells spread from body to bones, it is labelled Prostate Cancer metastatic to bones, not bone Cancer. Metastasis is a process of cancer spread through the blood or lymphatic system to other organs / areas throughout the body. In late stages of disease, Prostate Cancer more commonly metastasize to lymph nodes in the pelvis and to bones. Cancer staging is first described using what is called the TNM system. T refers to description of size or extent of primary, or original, tumor. N describes the presence or absence of, and extent of spread of Cancer to lymph nodes that may be nearby or further from the original tumor. M describes the presence or absence of metastases-usually distant areas elsewhere in the body other than Regional lymph nodes to which Cancer has spread. Cancers with specific TNM characteristics are then grouped into stages, and stages are then assigned Roman numerals with numerals used in increasing order as the extent of cancer being stag increases or cancer prognosis worsens. Prognosis is finally reflected by considering Patient's PSA score at presentation as well as their Gleason score in assigning final Stage designation. The American Joint Commission on Cancer system for Prostate Cancer staging is as follow: t designations refer to characteristics of Prostate Cancer primary tumor. T1 Prostate cancers cannot be seen on imaging tests or felt on examination.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Prostate Cancer Prognosis

Because most prostate cancers are diagnosed with early screening measures and are curable, average long-term prognosis for prostate cancer is quite encouraging. The figures below, provided by the American Cancer Society, represent the average relative survival rate of all men with prostate Cancer. They represent patients ' chances of survival after a specified number of years as compared with larger populations ' chances of survival during that same timeframe. Since these numbers include all stages of prostate Cancer, they will not accurately predict individual mans prognosis. 5-year relative survival rate of nearly 100 percent: Five years after diagnosis, average prostate cancer patient is about as likely as a man without prostate Cancer to still be living. 10-year relative survival rate of 98 percent: Ten years after diagnosis, average prostate Cancer patient is just 2 percent less likely to survive than man without prostate Cancer. 15-year relative survival rate of 95 percent: Fifteen years after diagnosis, average prostate Cancer patient is 5 percent less likely to survive than man without prostate Cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Staging, Spread, and Survival Rates

Clinical Stage Clinical Stage is based on results of tests that can be done prior to surgery. They include DRE, biopsy, X-rays, CT and / or MRI scans and bone scans. X-rays, bone scans, CT scans and MRI scans may not always be needed They are recommended based on PSA level, size of cancer, which is determined by its grade and volume and Clinical Stage of cancer. Pathologic Stage Pathologic Stage is based on information found during surgery, plus laboratory results referred to as pathology, of prostate tissue removed during surgery. Surgery often includes removal of the entire prostate and some lymph nodes. One important part of the staging process is determining the grade of cancer. The grading system is based on microanalysis of prostatic tissue. While the stage of cancer is determined based on macro appearance of tumor, in connection with nearby organs and tissues, grade of cancer is usually determined after biopsy, when cells are analyzed under microscope.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

New Cases and Deaths

The Incidence rate of Prostate Cancer varies across regions and populations. In 2018, 1 276 106 new cases of Prostate Cancer were registered worldwide, representing 7. 1 % of all cancers in men. Prostate Cancer incidence rates are highly variable worldwide. The Age-standardized rate was highest in Oceania and North America, Follow by Europe. Conversely, Africa and Asia have incidence rates that are lower than those of developed countries. The differences in incidence rates were 190-fold between populations at the highest rate, and populations at the lowest rate. Prostate Cancer incidence increases with age. Although only 1 in 350 men under the age of 50 years will be diagnosed with Prostate Cancer, incidence rate increase up to 1 in every 52 men ages 50 to 59 years. The incidence rate is nearly 60 % in men over the age of 65 years. The reason for these differences among countries is not entirely clear. Worldwide variations in Prostate Cancer incidence might be attributed to PSA testing. For example, in Europe, Prostate Cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men, accounting for 24 % of all new cancers in 2018, with around 450 000 New Prostate Cancer cases estimated in 2018. While in the USA, Prostate Cancer is the second most common cancer, accounting for 9. 5 % of all new cancer cases registered in 2018. According to recently conducted research studies, around 20-40 % of Prostate Cancer cases in the USA and Europe could be due to overdiagnosis through extensive PSA testing. Research has shown that African-American men have the highest incidence of Prostate Cancer worldwide and are more likely to develop the disease earlier in life when compared to other racial and ethnic groups. This is reflected in data not only for African-American men, but also for Caribbeans, and black men in Europe, suggesting that they possess common genetic background more prone to development of cancer. Of note, Chu et al reported that incidence rates of Prostate Cancer were as much as 40 times higher among African-American men than those in Africa. These differences suggest that environmental factors also play an important role in the etiology of Prostate Cancer and variations in incidence may be due to underdiagnosis, differences in screening methods and disparities in healthcare access. International mortality Rates For Prostate Cancer vary considerably worldwide. In 2018, highest mortality rates were recorded in Central America, Follow by Australia and New Zealand and Western Europe. The lowest rate was reported in countries of Asia and Northern Africa. One-third of deaths for Prostate Cancer occur in Asia, followed by Europe. The mortality rate of Prostate Cancer rises with age, and almost 55 % of all deaths occur after 65 years of age. The US Preventive Task Force has reported that there is potential benefit of decreasing deaths from Prostate Cancer in men aged 55-69 years with PSA Screening. However, for men above 70 years of age for all races, data is less convincing.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Trends in Rates

Trends in US incidence and mortality rates for Black and White Americans from 1975 to 2008 are shown in Figure 1. Approximately 10 % of the American population is Black or African American. Overall, American male Prostate Cancer incidence and mortality rates closely follow that of white men. The Incidence rate rose approximately 2 % per year from 1975 into the late 1980s. This trend was caused by incidentally detected disease associated with increased use of transurethral resection of Prostate for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. TURP-detect cancers were half of all detected cancers in the mid-1980s, but the proportion of TURP-detected tumors fell off as use of procedure decline. Widespread Prostate specific antigen-base screening began in the United States in 1991 and 1992 after publication of studies showing that screening found cancer. As is common with the introduction of any new screening test, this caused a dramatic rise in incidence. There was true early detection, meaning some finding of cases that would have been diagnosed in later years. There was also some detection of cancers that would never have been diagnosed or treat. The decline in incidence in the late 1990s represents clearing out of prevalent cases, meaning early detection of some cancers that would have been diagnosed in future. The Prostate Cancer mortality rate rose from 1975 until 1991, when it began dropping. The mortality rate has declined by 39 % from 1991 to 2008. 2006-2008 annual mortality rates are slightly below the 1975 rate. The reason for the rise in mortality from 1975 to 1991 is unknown. Some have suggested that changes in World Health Organization definitions of cause of death increase attribution of cause of death to Prostate Cancer. The drop in mortality since 1991 may be due to 1 positive effect of screening and treatment, 2 more changes in attribution of cause of death, 3 hormonal therapy causing some men with metastatic disease to have a true increase in time from diagnosis to death, or 4 possibly increase risk of death from cardiovascular disease among some Prostate Cancer patients treat with hormonal therapies for early disease 5. All four causes are plausible and could account for the drop in mortality. Even when accounting for racial differences, incidence rates vary considerably by state 8. Using data gathered from 2003 to 2007, age-adjust rates for whites vary from a low of 123 per 100 000 in Arizona to a high of 183 per 100 000 in Minnesota 1. This difference reflects variance in intensity of screening practices rather than variance in inherent population risk. After accounting for racial differences in the population, there is much less state-by-state variation in mortality. Some of the most convincing data to suggest that screening is not very effective are ecologic studies showing that higher prevalence of screening is correlated with higher Prostate Cancer incidence rate but is not correlate with difference in Prostate Cancer mortality rate 6.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

One-year net survival by stage

Net Survival is an estimate of the probability of survival from cancer alone. It can be interpreted as Survival of Cancer patients after taking into account background mortality that patients would have experienced if they had not had Cancer. Background mortality is derived from life tables of all-cause mortality rates in the general population. Net Survival varies with age, and the age profile of cancer patients can vary with time and between geographical areas, so estimates are age-standardise to facilitate comparison. The estimates show with their 95 % confidence intervals. For convenience, net survival is expressed as a percentage in the range of 0-100 per cent. For more detailed information on this data source, please see the Office for National Statistics website. The percentage of cancers diagnosed at an early stage is calculated as the number of cases of ten cancers diagnosed at Stage 1 or 2 divided by the number of new cases diagnosed at any stage or unknown stage. Ten cancers include in measure are invasive malignancies of breast, prostate, colorectal, lung, bladder, kidney, ovary and uterus, non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and melanomas of skin. For more information, please see Cancer Outcome Metric: Stage at Diagnosis. Five-year net Survival is cumulative probability that cancer patients survive their cancer for at least five years, after controlling for risks of death from other causes. Net Survival is express as percentage. Net Survival for patients diagnosed during 2000-2004 is based on cohort approach, since all patients had been followed for at least five years by the end of 2014. For patients diagnosed during 2010-2014, period approach is used which allows estimation of five-year survival, though five years of follow-up are not available for all patients. Cancer Survival estimates are age-standardise with International Cancer Survival Standard weights. For further information, please see: OECD Definitions for Health Care Quality Indicators and Health at Glance 2019: OECD Indicators.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Citation

Prostate Cancer is the second most frequent malignancy in men worldwide, counting 1 276 106 new cases and causing 358 989 deaths in 2018. The incidence and mortality of Prostate Cancer worldwide correlate with increasing age, with the average age at time of diagnosis being 66 years. Of note, for African-American men, incidence rates are higher when compared to white men, with 158. 3 New cases are diagnosed per 100 000 men and their mortality is approximately twice as white men. Reasons for this disparity have been hypothesized as differences in social, environmental and genetic factors. Although 2 293 818 new cases are estimated until 2040, small variation in mortality will be observe. Prostate Cancer may be asymptomatic at an early stage and often has an indolent course, and may require minimal or even no treatment. However, most frequent complaint is difficulty with urination, increased frequency, and nocturia, all symptoms that may also arise from prostatic hypertrophy. More advanced stages of disease may present with urinary retention and back pain, as the axis skeleton is the most common site of bony metastatic disease. Many Prostate cancers are detected on the basis of elevated plasmatic levels of Prostate-specific antigen, glycoprotein normally expressed by prostate tissue. However, because men without cancer have also been found with elevated PSA, tissue biopsy is standard of care to confirm cancer presence. Diet and physical activity play an important role in Prostate Cancer development and progression. Dietary factors are mainly associated with observed worldwide and ethnic differences in incidence rates of Prostate Cancer. Most studies are devoted not only to identifying genes involved in the inherited form of Prostate Cancer but also to mutations occurring in the acquired form. Therefore, detailed analysis of Prostate Cancer epidemiology and evaluation of risk factors can help to understand the connection between genetic mutations and the role of the environment in triggering these mutations and / or favoring Tumor Progression. Increase understanding of etiology and causative risk factors of Prostate Cancer will provide ways to identify at-Risk males and support development of effective screening and prevention methods.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

METHODS

The Median age at Diagnosis of Carcinoma of Prostate is 66 years. Prostate Cancer may be cured when localize, and it frequently responds to treatment when widespread. The rate of tumor growth varies from very slow to moderately rapid, and some patients may have prolonged survival even after cancer has metastasize to distant sites, such AS bone. The 5-year relative survival rate for men diagnosed in the United States from 2001 to 2007 with local or regional disease was 100 %, and the rate for distant disease was 28. 7 %; 99 % survival rate was observed for all stages combine. The approach to treatment is influenced by age and coexisting medical problems. Side effects of various forms of Treatment should be considered in selecting appropriate management. Many patientsespecially, those with localized tumorsmay die of other illnesses without ever having suffer disability from cancer, even if managed conservatively without attempt at curative therapy. In part, these favorable outcomes are likely the result of widespread screening with the Prostate-specific antigen test, which can identify patients with asymptomatic tumors that have little or no lethal potential. There is a large number of these clinically indolent tumors, estimated from autopsy series of men dying of causes unrelated to Prostate Cancer to range from 30 % to 70 % of men older than 60 years. Because diagnostic methods have changed over time, any analysis of survival after Treatment of Prostate Cancer and comparison of various Treatment strategies is complicated by evidence of increasing diagnosis of nonlethal tumors. Nonrandomized comparisons of treatments may be confound not only by patient selection factors but also by time trends. For example, population-base study in Sweden shows that, from 1960 to late 1980s, before use of PSA for Screening purposes, long-term relative survival rates after Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer improved substantially AS more sensitive methods of Diagnosis were introduce. This occurs despite the use of watchful waiting or active surveillance or palliative hormonal Treatment AS most common Treatment strategies for localized Prostate Cancer during entire era. Investigators estimate that, if all Prostate cancers diagnosed between 1960 and 1964 were of the lethal variety, then at least 33 % of cancers diagnosed between 1980 and 1984 were of the nonlethal variety. With the advent of PSA Screening AS most common method of detection in the United States, ability to diagnose nonlethal Prostate cancers has further increase. Another issue complicating comparisons of outcomes among nonconcurrent series of patients is the possibility of changes in criteria for histologic Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer. This phenomenon creates statistical artifacts that can produce a false sense of Therapeutic accomplishment and may also lead to more aggressive therapy. Controversy exists regarding the value of screening, most appropriate staging evaluation, and optimal treatment of each stage of disease. National Cancer Institute: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Prostate. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute. Available online. Last accessed October 29 2020. American Cancer Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2012. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, 2012.


Radical Prostatectomy

In 1993, structure literature review of 144 papers was done in attempt to compare three primary treatment strategies for clinically localized prostate cancer: authors conclude that poor reporting and selection factors within all series preclude valid comparison of efficacy for three management strategies. In a literature review of case series of patients with palpable, clinically localized disease, authors find that 10-year prostatecancer-specific survival rates were best in radical prostatectomy series, worst in radiation therapy series, and intermediate with deferred treatment. Because it is highly unlikely that radiation therapy would worsen disease-specific survival, most likely explanation is that selection factors affect choice of treatment. Such selection factors make comparisons of therapeutic strategies imprecise. Radical prostatectomy has been compared with watchful waiting or active surveillance / active monitoring in men with early-stage disease in randomized trials, with conflicting results. The differences in results may be the result of differences in how men were diagnosed with prostate cancer.


Treatment Option Overview for Prostate Cancer

Local Treatment modalities are associated with prolonged Disease-free Survival for many Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer but are rarely curative in Patients with locally extensive tumors. Because of Clinical understaging using current diagnostic techniques, even when cancer appears clinically localized to the Prostate gland, some patients develop disseminate tumors after local Therapy With Surgery or Radiation. Treatment options for each stage of Prostate Cancer are present in Table 6. Side effects of each of the treatment approaches are covered in the relevant sections below. Patient-report adverse effects differ substantially across options for Management of clinically localized Disease, with few direct comparisons, and include watchful waiting / Active Surveillance / Active Monitoring, Radical Prostatectomy, and Radiation Therapy. Differences in adverse effects can play an important role in Patient Choice Among Treatment options. Detailed comparisons of these effects have been reported in Population-base cohort Studies, albeit with relatively short Follow-Up times of 2 to 3 Years. Information about ongoing Clinical trials is available from the NCI website.


Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation

Cryosurgery, or cryotherapy, is under evaluation for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. It is a surgical technique that involves destruction of prostate cancer cells by intermittent freezing of the prostate with cryoprobes, followed by thawing.; There is limited evidence regarding its efficacy and safety compared with standard prostatectomy and radiation therapy, and technique is evolving in an attempt to reduce local toxicity and normal tissue damage. The quality of evidence on efficacy is low, currently limited to case series of relatively small size, short follow-up, and surrogate outcomes of efficacy. Serious toxic effects associated with cryosurgery include bladder outlet injury, urinary incontinence, sexual impotence, and rectal injury. Impotence is common, ranging from about 47 % to 100 %. Frequency of other side effects and probability of cancer control at 5 years' follow-up have varied among reporting centers, and series are small compared with surgery and radiation therapy. Other major complications include urethral sloughing, urinary fistula or stricture, and bladder neck obstruction.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

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