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Survival Rate Of Prostate Cancer

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Last Updated: 27 September 2020

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General | Latest Info

Prostate Cancer is one of the most common types of cancer that develop in men and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men, behind lung cancer and just ahead of colorectal cancer. The Prognosis for Prostate Cancer, as with any cancer, depends on how advanced the cancer has become, according to established stage designations. Prostate gland is a walnut - size gland present only in men, found in the pelvis below the bladder. Prostate gland wraps around urethra and lies in front of the rectum. Prostate glands secrete part of the liquid portion of semen, or seminal fluid, which carries sperm made by testes. Fluid is essential to reproduction. Term stage Cancer means to describe the obvious extent of cancer in the body at the time that cancer is first diagnose. Clinical staging of Prostate Cancer is based on pathology results, physical examination, PSA, and, if appropriate, radiologic studies. Stage Of Cancer helps doctors understand the extent of cancer and plan Cancer Treatment. Knowing overall results of different treatments for similarly stag prostate cancers can help doctors and patients make important decisions about choices of treatment to recommend or to accept. Prostate Cancer comprises nearly always adenocarcinoma cells - cells that arise from glandular tissue. Cancer cells are named according to the organ in which they originate, no matter where in the body we find such cells. If Prostate Cancer cells spread from body to bones, it is labelled Prostate Cancer metastatic to bones, not bone Cancer. Metastasis is a process of cancer spread through the blood or lymphatic system to other organs / areas throughout the body. In late stages of disease, Prostate Cancer more commonly metastasizes to lymph nodes in the pelvis and to bones. Cancer staging is first described using what is called the TNM system. T refers to description of size or extent of primary, or original, tumor. N describes the presence or absence of, and extent of spread of cancer to lymph nodes that may be nearby or further from the original tumor. M describes the presence or absence of metastases - usually distant areas elsewhere in the body other than regional lymph nodes to which cancer has spread. Cancers with specific TNM characteristics are then grouped into stages, and stages are then assigned Roman numerals with numerals used in increasing order as the extent of cancer being stag increases or cancer prognosis worsens. Prognosis is finally reflected by considering patient's PSA score at presentation as well as their Gleason score in assigning final stage designation. The American Joint Commission on Cancer system for Prostate Cancer staging is as follow: t designations refer to characteristics of Prostate Cancer primary tumor. T1 Prostate cancers cannot be seen on imaging tests or felt on examination.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Prostate Cancer Prognosis

Because most prostate cancers are diagnosed with early screening measures and are curable, average long - term prognosis for prostate cancer is quite encouraging. Figures below, provided by the American Cancer Society, represent the average relative survival rate of all men with prostate Cancer. They represent patients ' chances of survival after a specified number of years as compared with larger populations ' chances of survival during that same timeframe. Since these numbers include all stages of prostate cancer, they will not accurately predict an individual's prognosis. 5 - year relative survival rate of nearly 100 percent: Five years after diagnosis, average prostate cancer patient is about as likely as a man without prostate cancer to still be living. 10 - year relative survival rate of 98 percent: Ten years after diagnosis, average prostate cancer patient is just 2 percent less likely to survive than man without prostate cancer. 15 - year relative survival rate of 95 percent: Fifteen years after diagnosis, average prostate cancer patient is 5 percent less likely to survive than man without prostate cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Incidence of Prostate Cancer

Prostate Cancer is the second most frequent malignancy in men worldwide, counting 1 276 106 new cases and causing 358 989 deaths in 2018. Incidence and mortality of Prostate Cancer worldwide correlate with increasing age, with the average age at time of diagnosis being 66 years. Of note, for African - American men, incidence rates are higher when compared to white men, with 158. 3 New cases are diagnosed per 100 000 men and their mortality is approximately twice as white men. Reasons for this disparity have been hypothesized as differences in social, environmental and genetic factors. Although 2 293 818 new cases are estimated by 2040, small variation in mortality will be observe. Prostate Cancer may be asymptomatic at an early stage and often has an indolent course, and may require minimal or even no treatment. However, most frequent complaint is difficulty with urination, increased frequency, and nocturia, all symptoms that may also arise from prostatic hypertrophy. More advanced stages of disease may present with urinary retention and back pain, as the axis skeleton is the most common site of bony metastatic disease. Many Prostate cancers are detected on the basis of elevated plasmatic levels of Prostate - specific antigen, glycoprotein normally expressed by prostate tissue. However, because men without cancer have also been found with elevated PSA, tissue biopsy is standard of care to confirm cancer presence. Diet and physical activity play an important role in Prostate Cancer development and progression. Dietary factors are mainly associated with observed worldwide and ethnic differences in incidence rates of Prostate Cancer. Most studies are devoted not only to identifying genes involved in the inherited form of Prostate Cancer but also to mutations occurring in the acquired form. Therefore, detailed analysis of Prostate Cancer epidemiology and evaluation of risk factors can help to understand the connection between genetic mutations and the role of the environment in triggering these mutations and / or favoring Tumor Progression. Increase understanding of etiology and causative risk factors of Prostate Cancer will provide ways to identify at - risk males and support development of effective screening and prevention methods.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

New Cases and Deaths

In the United States, Prostate Cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non - skin cancer and the second leading cause of Cancer death. It is estimated that 241 740 men will be diagnosed with the disease in 2012 and 28 170 will die of it. Among men alive today, it is estimated that 1 in 6 will be diagnosed with disease and approximately 1 in 33 will die of it. In 1975, lifetime risk of diagnosis was about 1 in 12, and the lifetime risk of death was 3%. It is estimated that 2. 28 million Americans are alive after diagnosis of Prostate Cancer in 2007.


Conclusion

Prostate Cancer is the most common malignancy in men, ranking second after lung cancer. Identification of biomarkers such as PSA that are positively correlated with diagnosis of Prostate Cancer revolutionizes epidemiology of this disease. Indeed, since the introduction of PSA testing and subsequent biopsies, USA has registered double of Prostate Cancer incidence starting in the late 1980s. A Similar increase was also reported in other countries, particularly in western type. Unfortunately, although it is effective in reducing Prostate Cancer - specific mortality, relevant overdiagnosis and severe side effects of treatments advise against introduction of PSA as a screening program. Perhaps, most dramatic statistic when it comes to Prostate Cancer incidence and mortality is that prevalence varies among different racial groups, with the highest prevalence in African - American men. Both biologic and socioeconomic factors may explain this discrepancy, but which genes may be involved and how they may interact with the environment is still unknown and is the subject of studies. In 2018, study called Research on Prostate Cancer in Men of African Ancestry: Defining Roles of Genetics, Tumor Markers, and Social Stress was financed by the National Cancer Institute, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities and Prostate Cancer Foundation with the purpose of addressing those questions. In recent years, development of novel genetic technologies allowed for the first time comprehensive analysis of genetic and epigenetic changes in human Prostate Cancer. This information, combined with targeted functional studies, helps to identify critical signaling pathways that are casually involved in Prostate Cancer initiation and progression. This information will provide opportunity for development of novel target approaches for therapeutic interventions. More research to identify genes associated with increased risk of Prostate Cancer is ongoing, and researchers are collecting more insights about the impact that specific genetic changes have on Prostate Cancer development. Although there are no studies that can sufficiently demonstrate a direct correlation between diet and nutrition with risk or prevention of Prostate Cancer development, many preclinical studies that look at links between certain eating behaviors and cancer suggest there may be a connection. Moreover, these studies allow identify underlying biological mechanisms that may explain this link. Therefore, well - designed trials that replicate preclinical findings are warranted to validate the impact of dietary agents in Prostate Cancer. Finally, future chemoprevention studies should include not only early intervention but should also emphasize personalized molecularly targeted approaches for selection and treatment of patients with Prostate Cancer that result in positive outcome and effective therapy.


Deaths from prostate cancer

Between 2007 and 2020, number of deaths is expected to go up by 15. 2% in men and 8. 1% in women, although the rate of cancer deaths per 100 000 people in the United States is expected to keep going down. We expect cancer death rates to drop most for prostate cancer. Colorectal cancer. Lung cancer. Female breast cancer. Cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. Cervical cancer. Melanoma. Between 1975 and 2009, number of cancer deaths went up among both white and black Americans, mostly because of an aging white population and a growing black population. Cancer death rate began to drop in the early 1990s, mostly because of a decline in deaths from lung and prostate cancer in men, breast cancer in women, and colorectal cancer in both sexes.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Trends in Rates

The Incidence rate of Prostate Cancer varies across regions and populations. In 2018, 1 276 106 new cases of Prostate Cancer were registered worldwide, representing 7. 1% of all cancers in men. Prostate Cancer incidence rates are highly variable worldwide. The age - standardized rate was highest in Oceania and North America, Follow by Europe. Conversely, Africa and Asia have incidence rates that are lower than those of developed countries. The differences in incidence rates were 190 - fold between populations at the highest rate, and populations at the lowest rate. Prostate Cancer incidence increases with age. Although only 1 in 350 men under the age of 50 years will be diagnosed with Prostate Cancer, incidence rate increase up to 1 in every 52 men ages 50 to 59 years. The incidence rate is nearly 60% in men over the age of 65 years. The reason for these differences among countries is not entirely clear. Worldwide variations in Prostate Cancer incidence might be attributed to PSA testing. For example, in Europe, Prostate Cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men, accounting for 24% of all new cancers in 2018, with around 450 000 new Prostate Cancer cases estimated in 2018. While in the USA, Prostate Cancer is the second most common cancer, accounting for 9. 5% of all new cancer cases were registered in 2018. According to recently conducted research studies, around 20 - 40% of Prostate Cancer cases in the USA and Europe could be due to overdiagnosis through extensive PSA testing. Research has shown that African - American men have the highest incidence of Prostate Cancer worldwide and are more likely to develop the disease earlier in life when compared to other racial and ethnic groups. This is reflected in data not only for African - American men, but also for Caribbeans, and black men in Europe, suggesting that they possess common genetic background more prone to development of cancer. Of note, Chu et al reported that incidence rates of Prostate Cancer were as much as 40 times higher among African - American men than those in Africa. These differences suggest that environmental factors also play an important role in the etiology of Prostate Cancer and variations in incidence may be due to underdiagnosis, differences in screening methods and disparities in healthcare access. International mortality rates for Prostate Cancer vary considerably worldwide. In 2018, highest mortality rates were recorded in Central America, Follow by Australia and New Zealand and Western Europe. The lowest rate was reported in countries of Asia and Northern Africa. One - third of deaths from Prostate Cancer occur in Asia, followed by Europe. The mortality rate of Prostate Cancer rises with age, and almost 55% of all deaths occur after 65 years of age. The US Preventive Task Force has reported that there is potential benefit of decreasing deaths from Prostate Cancer in men aged 55 - 69 years with PSA screening. However, for men above 70 years of age for all races, data is less convincing.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

One-year net survival by stage

One - year Net Survival for prostate Cancer is highest for patients diagnosed at Stage 1, Stage 2, and lowest for those diagnosed at Stage 4, As 2013 - 2017 data for England show. 100% of patients diagnosed at Stage 1, Stage 2 survive their disease for at least one year, compared to 88% of patients diagnosed at Stage 4. One year Net Survival for unknown or missing stage is 94%, while one year survival for unstageable Cancer is 42%. Lack of staging information may in some cases reflect advanced Stage at Diagnosis, as very unwell patients may not undergo staging tests if the invasiveness of testing outweighs potential benefit of obtaining stage information. Incomplete staging assessment may also be associated with socio - demographic and clinical characteristics of patient. Stage completeness for prostate Cancer was 88% in 2013 - 2017. Net survival can be greater than 100% because it accounts for background mortality. Net Survival greater than 100% indicates that patients in this group have a better chance of surviving one year after diagnosis compared with the general population. Prostate Cancer one - year Net Survival by Stage, with incidence by Stage

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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