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Survival Rate Prostate Cancer

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Last Updated: 23 September 2020

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General | Latest Info

Prostate Cancer is one of the most common types of cancer that develop in men and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men, behind lung cancer and just ahead of colorectal cancer. The prognosis for Prostate Cancer, as with any cancer, depends on how advanced the cancer has become, according to established stage designations. Prostate gland is a walnut - size gland present only in men, found in the pelvis below the bladder. Prostate gland wraps around urethra and lies in front of the rectum. Prostate glands secrete part of the liquid portion of semen, or seminal fluid, which carries sperm made by testes. Fluid is essential to reproduction. The term stage Cancer is meant to describe the obvious extent of cancer in the body at the time that cancer is first diagnose. Clinical staging of Prostate Cancer is based on pathology results, physical examination, PSA, and, if appropriate, radiologic studies. Stage of Cancer helps doctors understand the extent of cancer and plan Cancer Treatment. Knowing overall results of different treatments for similarly stag prostate cancers can help doctors and patients make important decisions about choices of treatment to recommend or to accept. Prostate Cancer comprises nearly always adenocarcinoma cells - cells that arise from glandular tissue. Cancer cells are named according to the organ in which they originate, no matter where in the body we find such cells. If Prostate Cancer cells spread from body to bones, it is labelled Prostate Cancer metastatic to bones, not bone Cancer. Metastasis is a process of cancer spread through the blood or lymphatic system to other organs / areas throughout the body. In late stages of disease, Prostate Cancer more commonly metastasizes to lymph nodes in the pelvis and to bones. Cancer staging is first described using what is called the TNM system. T refers to description of size or extent of primary, or original, tumor. N describes the presence or absence of, and extent of spread of cancer to lymph nodes that may be nearby or further from the original tumor. M describes the presence or absence of metastases - usually distant areas elsewhere in the body other than regional lymph nodes to which cancer has spread. Cancers with specific TNM characteristics are then grouped into stages, and stages are then assigned Roman numerals with numerals used in increasing order as the extent of cancer being stag increases or cancer prognosis worsens. Prognosis is finally reflected by considering patient's PSA score at presentation as well as their Gleason score in assigning final stage designation. The American Joint Commission on Cancer system for Prostate Cancer staging is as follow: t designations refer to characteristics of Prostate Cancer primary tumor. T1 Prostate cancers cannot be seen on imaging tests or felt on examination.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Staging, Spread, and Survival Rates

As with all cancers, doctors use the term stage to describe characteristics of the primary tumor itself, such as its size and how far prostate cancer has spread when it is find. Staging systems are complicate. Staging systems for most cancers, including prostate cancer, use three different aspects of tumor growth and spread. It's called TNM system, for tumor, nodes, and metastasis: t, for tumor describes the size of the main area of prostate cancer. N, for nodes, describes whether prostate cancer has spread to any lymph nodes, and how many and in what locations. M, for metastasis, means distant spread of prostate cancer, for example, to bones or liver. Using the TNM system, each man's prostate cancer can be described in detail and compared to other men's prostate cancer. Doctors use this information for studies and to decide on treatments. As far as survival rates for prostate cancer go, however, staging system is pretty simple. As we 've mention, in terms of survival rates, men with prostate cancer can be divided into two groups: men with prostate cancer that is localized to the prostate or just nearby. These men have a high long - term survival rate for their prostate cancer. Almost all will survive their prostate cancer for longer than five years - and well beyond for many men. Men whose prostate cancer has spread to distant areas, like their bones. These men may need more aggressive treatment for their prostate cancer. Fewer of these men - about one - third - will survive their prostate cancer for more than five years.


Survival for all stages of prostate cancer

There are no UK - wide statistics available for all stages of prostate cancer. Survival for all stages is available for England and Wales. These figures are for people diagnosed between 2010 - 2011. Generally, for men with prostate cancer in England and Wales: almost 95 out of 100 will survive their cancer for 1 year or more around 85 out of 100 will survive their cancer for 5 years or more almost 85 out of 100 will survive their cancer for 10 years or more survival for prostate cancer is also report in Scotland and Northern Ireland. But it is difficult to compare survival between these countries because of differences in the way information is collect.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Incidence of Prostate Cancer

The incidence rate of Prostate Cancer varies across regions and populations. In 2018, 1 276 106 new cases of Prostate Cancer were registered worldwide, representing 7. 1% of all cancers in men. Prostate Cancer incidence rates are highly variable worldwide. The age - standardized rate was highest in Oceania and North America, Follow by Europe. Conversely, Africa and Asia have incidence rates that are lower than those of developed countries. The differences in incidence rates were 190 - fold between populations at the highest rate, and populations at the lowest rate. Prostate Cancer incidence increases with age. Although only 1 in 350 men under the age of 50 years will be diagnosed with Prostate Cancer, incidence rate increase up to 1 in every 52 men ages 50 to 59 years. The incidence rate is nearly 60% in men over the age of 65 years. The reason for these differences among countries is not entirely clear. Worldwide variations in Prostate Cancer incidence might be attributed to PSA testing. For example, in Europe, Prostate Cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men, accounting for 24% of all new cancers in 2018, with around 450 000 new Prostate Cancer cases estimated in 2018. While in the USA, Prostate Cancer is the second most common cancer, accounting for 9. 5% of all new cancer cases were registered in 2018. According to recently conducted research studies, around 20 - 40% of Prostate Cancer cases in the USA and Europe could be due to overdiagnosis through extensive PSA testing. Research has shown that African - American men have the highest incidence of Prostate Cancer worldwide and are more likely to develop the disease earlier in life when compared to other racial and ethnic groups. This is reflected in data not only for African - American men, but also for Caribbeans, and black men in Europe, suggesting that they possess common genetic background more prone to development of cancer. Of note, Chu et al reported that incidence rates of Prostate Cancer were as much as 40 times higher among African - American men than those in Africa. These differences suggest that environmental factors also play an important role in the etiology of Prostate Cancer and variations in incidence may be due to underdiagnosis, differences in screening methods and disparities in healthcare access. International mortality rates for Prostate Cancer vary considerably worldwide. In 2018, highest mortality rates were recorded in Central America, Follow by Australia and New Zealand and Western Europe. The lowest rate was reported in countries of Asia and Northern Africa. One - third of deaths from Prostate Cancer occur in Asia, followed by Europe. The mortality rate of Prostate Cancer rises with age, and almost 55% of all deaths occur after 65 years of age. The US Preventive Task Force has reported that there is potential benefit of decreasing deaths from Prostate Cancer in men aged 55 - 69 years with PSA screening. However, for men above 70 years of age for all races, data is less convincing.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

New Cases and Deaths

In the United States, Prostate Cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non - skin cancer and the second leading cause of Cancer death. It is estimated that 241 740 men will be diagnosed with the disease in 2012 and 28 170 will die of it. Among men alive today, it is estimated that 1 in 6 will be diagnosed with disease and approximately 1 in 33 will die of it. In 1975, lifetime risk of diagnosis was about 1 in 12, and the lifetime risk of death was 3%. It is estimated that 2. 28 million Americans are alive after diagnosis of Prostate Cancer in 2007.


Conclusion

Prostate Cancer is the most common malignancy in men, ranking second after lung cancer. Identification of biomarkers such as PSA that are positively correlated with diagnosis of Prostate Cancer revolutionizes epidemiology of this disease. Indeed, since the introduction of PSA testing and subsequent biopsies, USA has registered double of Prostate Cancer incidence starting in the late 1980s. A Similar increase was also reported in other countries, particularly in western type. Unfortunately, although it is effective in reducing Prostate Cancer - specific mortality, relevant overdiagnosis and severe side effects of treatments advise against introduction of PSA as a screening program. Perhaps, most dramatic statistic when it comes to Prostate Cancer incidence and mortality is that prevalence varies among different racial groups, with the highest prevalence in African - American men. Both biologic and socioeconomic factors may explain this discrepancy, but which genes may be involved and how they may interact with the environment is still unknown and is the subject of studies. In 2018, study called Research on Prostate Cancer in Men of African Ancestry: Defining Roles of Genetics, Tumor Markers, and Social Stress was financed by the National Cancer Institute, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities and Prostate Cancer Foundation with the purpose of addressing those questions. In recent years, development of novel genetic technologies allowed for the first time comprehensive analysis of genetic and epigenetic changes in human Prostate Cancer. This information, combined with targeted functional studies, helps to identify critical signaling pathways that are casually involved in Prostate Cancer initiation and progression. This information will provide opportunity for development of novel target approaches for therapeutic interventions. More research to identify genes associated with increased risk of Prostate Cancer is ongoing, and researchers are collecting more insights about the impact that specific genetic changes have on Prostate Cancer development. Although there are no studies that can sufficiently demonstrate a direct correlation between diet and nutrition with risk or prevention of Prostate Cancer development, many preclinical studies that look at links between certain eating behaviors and cancer suggest there may be a connection. Moreover, these studies allow identify underlying biological mechanisms that may explain this link. Therefore, well - designed trials that replicate preclinical findings are warranted to validate the impact of dietary agents in Prostate Cancer. Finally, future chemoprevention studies should include not only early intervention but should also emphasize personalized molecularly targeted approaches for selection and treatment of patients with Prostate Cancer that result in positive outcome and effective therapy.


Deaths from prostate cancer

Between 2007 and 2020, number of deaths is expected to go up by 15. 2% in men and 8. 1% in women, although the rate of cancer deaths per 100 000 people in the United States is expected to keep going down. We expect cancer death rates to drop most for prostate cancer. Colorectal cancer. Lung cancer. Female breast cancer. Cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. Cervical cancer. Melanoma. Between 1975 and 2009, number of cancer deaths went up among both white and black Americans, mostly because of an aging white population and a growing black population. The cancer death rate began to drop in the early 1990s, mostly because of a decline in deaths from lung and prostate cancer in men, breast cancer in women, and colorectal cancer in both sexes.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Trends in Rates

About 1 man in 9 will be diagnosed with Prostate Cancer during his lifetime. Prostate Cancer is more likely to develop in older men and in African - American men. About 6 cases out of 10 are diagnosed in men who are 65 or older, and it is rare in men under 40. The average age at diagnosis is about 66. Prostate Cancer is primarily a disease of older men. Over the last 30 years, there has been a trend toward larger numbers of younger men being diagnose. Prior to the PSA screening era, median age at diagnosis was 70 years. The median age at diagnosis over the past decade was 67 years. Incidence rate in 2005 relative to 1986 was 0. 56 in Men aged 80 years and older, 1. 09 in Men aged 70 - 79 years, 1. 91 in men aged 60 - 69 years, 3. 64 in men aged 50 - 59 years, and 7. 23 in men younger than 50 years. In 2005, less than 10% of men diagnosed in the United States were less than 55 years old. Approximately one - third were aged 55 - 64 years, another third were aged 65 - 74, and nearly one - fourth of all men diagnosed were aged 75 years or older. Age distribution of men diagnosed during the period 2003 - 2008 is shown in Table 2. Age - specific incidence and mortality rates for Black and White Americans are shown in Figure 2. The risk of diagnosis goes down dramatically after age 80, but the risk of Prostate Cancer death increases throughout adult life. Other than screening history, age is by far the strongest risk factor for Prostate Cancer incidence and death. Age is also a prognostic factor. Contrary to popular thought, young age in and of itself is not associated with worse outcomes after Prostate treatment. It is frequently mentioned that blacks have a higher incidence and mortality rate than whites. Interestingly, few have studied why whites have higher incidence and mortality compared with Asians, Hispanics, or Native Americans. There are studies suggesting that Prostate Cancer risk for Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans increase as members of these groups acculturate into US White society. Grade, percent of tumor in biopsy specimen, stage of disease, and overall health are very crude predictors of outcome. Better prognostic tools are needed. It is of note that when these factors are normalize, race does not appear to be a factor in the outcome. Differences in treatment patterns by race have been documented for nearly 20 years. The consistent pattern is that African Americans get less aggressive therapy at every stage of disease. When done rigorously, equal treatment yields equal outcome among equal patients. As there are questions concerning the efficacy of most Prostate Cancer treatments, one cannot say with absolute certainty what effect differences in treatment patterns have contributed to the higher mortality rate and risk of death of African Americans. Race may actually be surrogate for socioeconomic factors. Literacy has also been correlated with stage presentation. Education is also a prognostic factor for Prostate Cancer death.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

One-year net survival by stage

Survival rates also vary depending on the stage of cancer when it was first diagnose. Patients with cancers that have been detected in early stages have longer survival rate compared with those with cancers detected at later and more advanced stage. Databases held by the National Cancer Institute provide survival data for different types of cancer that are categorise according to whether they are local, regional or distant at time of diagnosis. Local refers to cancer confined to the prostate, regional to cancer that has spread to nearby but not distant areas, and distant refers to cancer that has spread to distant lymph nodes, bones or other areas of the body. According to Cancer Stage at Diagnosis, 5 - year survival rates are: 100% for the local stage, 100% for regional stage, 28% for distant stage

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Introduction

Prostate Cancer is a common cancer affecting the lives of millions of men worldwide. The incidence of Prostate Cancer cases rose drastically in the early 1990's. This trend was probably due to advances in Prostate Screening and Detection. However, incidence rates have fallen since 2006, there have been about 60 000 fewer cases diagnose. On the other hand, deaths due to Prostate Cancer have remain same. Prostate Cancer is currently the most commonly diagnosed cancer for men other than skin cancer and ranks as the second leading cause of cancer death in men. In 2016, American Cancer Society estimates 180 890 new cases will be diagnosed and 26 120 men will die of the disease in the United States. 1 below is a list of information found within this section: learn more about Prostate Cancer or make an appointment at Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University.


Prostate Cancer Risk Factors

Family history of Prostate Cancer do increase the risk of diagnosis and, to a lesser extent, death from Prostate Cancer. Having a father or brother with Prostate Cancer more than doubles the risk of diagnosis. The risk is higher for men with an affected brother than for those with an affected father. The risk is much higher for men with several affected relatives, particularly if their relatives were young at the time the cancer was find. In some cases, there may be inherited or genetic factor; However, one cannot exclude common environmental factors within the family. Some familial risk may simply be the fact that man is more likely to seek screening if a close relative is diagnose. Trends in Prostate Cancer incidence have in some ways affected family history of disease. Genetic studies suggest that strong familial predisposition may be responsible for between 5% and 10% of Prostate cancers. Some genes and common gene variations correlate with an increased risk of Prostate Cancer. One of these is called Hereditary Prostate Cancer Gene 1. Mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes have been linked to increased risk of breast and ovarian Cancer in women and may also increase Prostate Cancer risk in some men. If truly causal for Prostate Cancer, these mutations account for a very small percentage of Prostate cancers.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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