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T-bone Liver

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Last Updated: 18 January 2022

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General | Latest Info

What is liver cancer? Liver Cancer is cancer that starts in liver. It happens when cells in liver start to change and grow out of control, crowding out normal cells. This makes it hard for body to work way it should. Liver Makes Bile To Help Body Use Food. It also cleans blood and helps blood clot you are cut. Liver Cancer Cells can spread to other parts of body. When cancer does it is called metastasis. But even if liver cancer spreads to bones, it is still called and treated like liver Cancer, not bone cancer. Ablation: Treatment to destroy tumor. Ablation may be do with drugs, waves, heat, cold, alcohol, or microwaves to treat liver Cancer. Angiosarcoma: type of cancer that starts cells that line blood vessels or lymph vessels. Biopsy: taking out small of tissue to see if there are cancer cells in it. Hemangiosarcoma: Cancer that in cells that line blood vessels. Hepatocellular carcinoma: common type of liver Cancer. It starts in liver cells. Hepatectomy: surgery to take out all or part of liver. Metastasis: Cancer Cells that have spread from where they start to other places in body. Radiation: use of high-energy rays to Cancer Cells. Radioembolization: type of radiation therapy used to treat liver Cancer with tiny beads of radiation that are put right into hepatic artery, big blood vessel in liver.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What is liver cancer?

Liver metastasis is cancerous tumor that has spread to liver from cancer that starts in another place in body. It is also secondary liver Cancer. Primary liver Cancer originates in liver and most commonly affects individuals who have risk factors such as hepatitis or cirrhosis. Most of time, cancer in liver is secondary, or metastatic. Cancer cells in metastatic liver tumors are not liver cells. They are cells from part of body where primary cancer begin. Liver metastases metastases for liver stage or advanced Cancer

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Overview

Pathogenesis Of Osteoporosis In Chronic Liver Disease Is Complex And Relates To Both Increased Bone Resorption And Reduced Bone Formation. Unstable bone remodelling is caused by number of mechanisms, some of which remain unknown. In many cases, mechanisms of impaired bone are largely caused by unique characteristics of specific liver disease being consider. However, there remain number of common factors relating to chronic liver disease in general that affect bone metabolism. These include vitamin D and calcium metabolism alterations, vitamin K deficiency, and hormonal dysregulation, release of cytokines and of insulin-like growth factor 1. Vitamin D3 is hydroxylated in liver to 25-hydroxy vitamin D and then in kidneys to 1 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Decrease 25-OH-vitamin D production is associated with altered liver function and it results in impaired osteoclast-mediate bone resorption, osteoblast-mediate mineralization and decreased calcium resorption in gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, disturbed secretion of bile leads to decreased fat absorption and abnormal uptake of vitamin D as result. To summarize, metabolism of calcium and vitamin D results from impaired 25-hydroxylation, intestinal malabsorption and decreased skin synthesis in patients with jaundice. IGF-1 mediates number of biological effects of growth hormone and is also involved in negative feedback mechanism of GH secretion from pituitary gland. IGF-1 is produced in majority of hepatocytes and feedback is inhibited by GH. In patients with liver disease with advanced cirrhosis, GH secretion increased twofold. Increase pulse frequency and longer half life GH both contribute to greater availability. Reduced production of from cirrhotic liver leads to inhibition of GH axis negative feedback mechanism, thereby reducing GH levels in healthy individuals. Interleukin-1, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor enhance activity of osteoclasts. Increased concentrations of these cytokines are found in cases of cirrhosis, hepatitis and liver disease. IL-6 is produced osteoblasts which directly and indirectly activate osteoclasts. IL-6 indirectly activates osteoclasts by osteoblast production of receptor activator of nuclear factor B ligand. RANKL and osteoprotegerin are among best known cytokines involved in regulation of bone homeostasis. Receptor activator of nuclear factor B lead to activation of osteoclasts, increasing bone resorption. Osteoprotegerin inhibits binding of RANKL with RANK, thereby loss of bone mass. In early stages of disease, increased levels of RANKL and normal osteoprotegerin concentration result in increased bone resorption. However, as liver progress, concentration of RANKL remains within normal range while concentration of osteoprotegerin increases. This phenomenon may be secondary to impaired osteoblast function, which leads to decreased production of and thus reduces bone resorption. Decrease osteoblast activity also leads to impaired bone which is reflected in reduction in concentration of osteoblast-specific protein, osteocalcin. Adipose tissue derive cytokines, call adipokines, also play important role in pathogenesis of osteoporosis. In context of bone metabolism disorders, best know adipokine is leptin. Adipokines inhibit by decreasing synthesis of RANKL and increasing osteoprotegerin levels.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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