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Taking Up Space

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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Taking Up Space

AuthorChelsea Kwakye and Ore Ogunbiyi
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
PublisherMerky Books
Publication date27 June 2019

LONDON The United Kingdom is not planning to establish an independent Space Force. It already has an organization within the Ministry of Defence, Joint Forces Command, that oversees Space, intelligence, information Systems and cyber operations. But Joint Forces Command is very much align with the US Defense Department in its thinking about space as a warfighting domain and on where threats lie. Our biggest concern is the behavior of Russia and of China, Gen. Sir Chris Deverell, commander of Joint Forces Command, said Nov. 6 at the 2018 Global MilSatcom conference. He slammed both nations for not practicing what they preach on militarization of Space. They continue to promote international agreements on non-weaponization of space but are developing offensive space capabilities under screen of propaganda and misinformation, said Deverell. Russia and China are developing direct energy weapons, cyber techniques to disrupt satellite services and antisatellite missiles, he add. But exactly how to do that is still very much under debate. The high-level focus on space warfare comes at a time when UK civilian space activity is booming and the government is investing in private ventures such as satellite manufacturing and spaceports with hopes of boosting economic growth. The UK, thanks in large part to Airbus and Surrey Satellite, builds quarter of the world's large communications satellites and 40 percent of the world's small satellites, he say. This has a huge impact on the economy and also creates opportunities for MoD to apply commercial technologies to space security. Threats to Space Systems not only are concern to the military but to the larger economy that relies on satellites for essential services. Here we have a sector in which we excel, which is daily growing more central to everyones life but is vulnerable to attack, say Deverell. The Convergence of national security and economic interests creates opportunities and also challenges for the space industry in the UK, he suggest. On many people's minds in this sector, there is still uncertain fallout from Brexit. Many space research and development projects in the United Kingdom are partnerships with the European Union. The UK still doesnt know how it will play in the Europes Galileo Global Satellite Navigation system, which is expected to reach full operational capability in 2019 or 2020. Nations may lose access to Galileo encrypted Public regulate Service, and UK firms would be cut off from future Galileo contracts. Although the UK plans to remain in the European Space Agency, its future in the EUs Copernicus Earth-observation program is at risk, too. And UK participation in the Europes Space Surveillance and Tracking program is in doubt as well. A rich understanding of what is happening in the world is needed to enable better decision making, Deverell say. UK Space activities have to be pursued and made resilient to challenges, be it jamming, cyber, direct attack, Space weather, debris, Brexit or anything else. The urgency to defend Space has expanded our thinking, he say.

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The small satellite attraction

UKSA's hope is that launch facilities will attract a host of launch providers to Britain, including traditional rockets launching vertically, new Air-Launch Systems or point-to-point transportation systems for high-speed travel around the world. There are British companies that are looking to build new capabilities Skyrora, Orbex, Orbital Access. Companies in the US that have a great amount of Launch Heritage, like Lockheed Martin Orbital ATK. And then you have new engines on the market: Virgin Orbit, Virgin Galactic, Barcham say. Light-class rockets are designed to launch Small satellites Command premium because they launch often, quickly and directly into specific orbits. That can shave months of time it takes for satellite to become operational. Locations under consideration in the UK are located much further north of the equator than most of the world's launchpads, offering a unique ability to reach orbits commonly used by small satellites. The UK is an incredibly good place, Barcham say. If you're looking at vertical Launch options, North of Scotland has really clear access to the most popular orbits for small satellites. Barcham believes as many as 80 percent of future small satellites will require these orbits. Combine with Britain's robust Satellite production and Operations ecosystem, location means Launch is one bit that we're missing, Barcham say. We've heard a lot from our Small Satellite sector that access to space is one of the things that holds them back. It's expensive, it's cumbersome, Barcham say. We can be a one-stop shop for all requirements on the supply and on demand side.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Spurred by the Soviets

When US Space shuttles started linking up with Russia's Mir Space Station in 1995, both sides owed small debt to the old Soviet secret police, KGB. According to documents obtained by NBC News, it was KGB that successfully stole the US shuttle design in the '70s and '80s. That theft permitted the Soviet Union to build its own carbon copy of the US system, called Buran, thus unintentionally laying the groundwork for compatibility between US and Russian systems. Although the Soviet shuttle flew only once in 1990, it was planned in part as a space ferry to link up with Mir. That all-Soviet linkup never took place, and the Soviet shuttle was finally abandoned in 1994. But because Soviet craft was so similar to the US version, designing Mir linkup for Atlantis and other US shuttles proved simple and efficient. In fact, first linkup between Mir and shuttle Atlantis in 1995 used very system Russians designed for their own shuttle. The story of the Soviet shuttle is really a story of competition between two great space powers in microcosm, complete with Cold War intrigue and paranoia, mirror-image competition and all manner of spies, both human and electronic. It may also be the first recorded example of spying online. Brezhnev's paranoia story begins in 1974 with a secret meeting At Kremlin. Vladimir Smirnov, head of the Soviet Unions ' powerful Military-Industrial Commission, or VPK, was laying out priorities for next year to Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev. VPK was a body that directs not only Military projects but also lay out strategies for obtaining technologies. It was to the great benefit of VPK like its private US counterparts to exaggerate any US threat. And that, according to reports revealed years later, is exactly what Smirnov did Smirnov, from VPK, in his regular report to Brezhnev, mentions at the end of his report: Americans are intensively working on winged Space vehicle, according to the 1991 history of the program printed in Kuranty, Moscow magazine. Such a vehicle is like an aircraft. It is capable, through side maneuver, of changing its orbit in such a way that it would find itself at the right moment right over Moscow, possibly with dangerous cargo. News disturbs Leonid Illyich very much. He contemplate it intensively and then say, We are not country bumpkins here. Let the US make an effort and find money. Also backing the plan was the man at the heart of the Soviet Military, Marshal Dmitri Ustinov, Cold Warrior without parallel in the old Soviet Union. Man who ran Soviet munitions Industry during World War II, he was now Presidium member in charge of nations Defense and someone who could easily see the value of space bombers in spite of the fact that the Soviet Union and United States were about to sign a treaty banning nuclear weapons in outer Space.

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Behind the Vanguard

On Dec. 6 of that year, two months after Sputnik, live reports of a Vanguard rocket carrying Explorer 1 were broadcast on television and radios across the United States. Vanguard, according to NASA, was chosen because it had more overtones of civilian program policy decision going all way up to President Dwight Eisenhower, who did not want the appearance of using ballistic rockets intended for military purposes to usher in the New Space Age. Unfortunately, rocket exploded moments after launch in front of TV cameras. Amid headlines such as Kaputnik, senior Space officials take stock and examine their alternatives. Behind closed doors, they decide to proceed with the Juno rocket. Preparations at Cape Canaveral go on in secrecy for weeks, according to NASA, but as the launch date approached, the media were inform. Explorer 1 successfully flew into Space on Jan. 31 1958. Female team of scientists at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory calculate rocket's trajectory, and team member Barbara Paulson recalled in an interview that she was one confirming that Explorer 1 made it safely into Space. One of history's most famous Space photos occurred that night. Von Braun and two other people hold a model Juno rocket over their heads during a press briefing concerning successful launch. It was a good night for Germans, as well as for the American Space program.

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Explorer 1's science

On Jan. 31 1958, United States launched its first successful satellite: Explorer 1. It was the American answer to the Soviet Union's Sputnik 1, which kicked off the Space Age when it launched in 1957. Explorer 1 launch on US Army Juno rocket, also know as Jupiter-C, and mark first space mission to carry scientific instrument into Space. Satellites weigh 30 lbs., 18 lbs. Of which was science gear like cosmic ray detectors, temperature sensors and microphones to hear micrometeorites that might hit satellite. The US uses Explorer 1 as its contribution to the International Geophysical Year. The satellite was originally slat to launch on the US Navy's Vanguard rocket, but it exploded moments after launch, garnering nicknames like kaptunik in media headlines. Army's Jupiter-C, developed as a Ballistic Missile. Jupiter-C rocket deliver Explorer 1 into orbit that range between 220 miles to 1 563 miles above Earth. It beams data to Earth for four months, going silent on May 23. The satellite re-entered Earths atmosphere on March 31 1970 and burn up. Explorer 1's main instrument was a cosmic ray detector designed by James Van Allen of State University of Iowa. An experiment discovered evidence of radiation belts around Earth, now called Van Allen Belts, that mark the first scientific discovery in Space. Van Allen Belts are doughnut-shaped regions of high-energy particles held in place by the Earth's magnetic field. They serve as buffer, preventing cosmic rays from bombarding Earth, and may have play role in making Earth habitable for life, NASA has say. In 2012, NASA launched Van Allen Probes to study Van Allen radiation Belts in detail.

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Simplicity and reliability

Since 1959, NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, has managed one of the nation's most successful and reliable launch vehicles, known as the Scout. Scout, acronym for Solid control Orbital Utility Test system, is a four-stage Solid fuel satellite system capable of launching a 385-pound satellite into 500-mile orbit. There have been 118 Scout launches, and its overall 96 percent success rate has earned this workhorse spot in National Air and Space Museum, where it stands beside other veterans of America's Space program, such as Jupiter, Aerobee and Vanguard rockets. Scout's honor roll includes 23 satellites launched for international space organizations. Payloads have been launched for the European Space Research Organization, for Germany, for the Netherlands, for France, for Italy, and for the United Kingdom. Through the years, Scout has launched 94 Orbital missions, seven probe missions and 12 reentry missions. On January 1 1991, after more than 30 years, NASA Langley transferred management of the Scout Project to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland. Those who have worked on the Scout program have made unique contributions to the US Space program. They have created launch vehicle system that set the standard for simplicity, productivity and reliability. They do it by establishing uncompromising standards of exactness and by unwavering pursuit of excellence. In these accomplishments, they create an atmosphere of teamwork and mutual respect that those who work on Scout will never forget. The Scout team consists not only of NASA Langley employees but a group of employees from LTV Missiles and Electronics Group of Dallas, prime contractor for development of Scout systems. In 1959, Langley Research Center awarded a contract to LTV to develop an airframe and launcher. This begin partnership between NASA Langley and LTV that has lasted for over thirty years. Scout's reliability stems from a sense of teamwork and cooperation between government agency and contractor. Together, these people share success and failure-some of whom spent their entire career on Project. Ultimately, Scout is a vehicle that proves itself, over and over, to be reliable and dependable. Scout's reliability also stems from standardized procedures and configuration control and from its simple, old-fashion technology. The vehicle was built with off shelf hardware. Designers select from inventory of Solid-fuel rocket motors produced for military programs: first stage motor was a combination of Jupiter Senior and Navy Polaris; second stage came from Army Sergeant; and third and fourth stage motors were designed by Langley engineers who adapted version of Navy Vanguard. The heat shield and fins are insulated with cork. The guidance system uses simple gryos that cannot be reprogrammed after launch. But this old-fangled technology makes Scout reliable and predictable. Since its early development, configuration of Scout has continued to evolve. Each of the motors has been upgraded at least twice, and improvements in rocket engine design have enabled rockets to carry larger payloads.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Recent Van Allen belt findings

Van Allen Probes are specially hardened to withstand the intense radioactive environment of belts. Some spacecraft, however, are more vulnerable, especially when solar storm hits. At worst, spacecraft can short out due to electrical overload. Communications can also be disrupt. Fortunately, sometimes instruments can be turned on or off on spacecraft during Solar Storm. Radiation, of course, also poses human risk. Astronauts are subject to lifetime radiation limits from their time in Space, to reduce any risk of cancer. Since only a few dozen people have spent six months or longer in Space, however, it will take decades to understand the long-term effects of radiation on humans. Astronauts on the ISS do not regularly spend time inside belts, but from time to time Solar storms expand belts to orbit of the Space Station. In the 1960s, several Apollo crews went through Van Allen belts on their way to and from the moon. Their time in that radiation-intensive region, however, was very short, in part because the trajectory was designed to pass through the thinnest known parts. With more study, astronauts could be better protected for long-term stay in Earth orbit. We study radiation belts because they pose a hazard to spacecraft and astronauts, said David Sibeck, Van Allen Probes mission scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, in an August 2016 NASA statement. If you knew how bad radiation could get, you would build better spacecraft to accommodate that. Newer findings from Probes show that radiation in certain zones may be less harsh than scientists think. In March 2017, Van Allen Probes made Finding showing there is less radiation in inner belts that previously theorize, which means less shielding is required for spacecraft and satellites in that region. Most energetic electrons residing in the inner Radiation Belt are there for less time than scientists thought beforehand. The following year, Probes discovered that some communications wavelengths emanating from Earth are sometimes a sort of shield against high-energy Particle Radiation in Space. This means that human activity has effects even in the near-Space environment around Earth. As of 2018, Van Allen Probes are running low on fuel and are expected to finish their mission around 2020. Goddard is working on a CubeSat mission called GTOSat that will continue studying Van Allen belts. This mission first will serve as a pathfinder for new Radiation-tolerant technologies that could help scientists realize a long-sought dream: deploying a constellation of small satellites beyond low-Earth orbit to gather simultaneous, multi-point measurements of Earth's ever-changing magnetosphere, which protect the planet from constant assault of charge particles streaming off the Sun, NASA said in May 2018.


What are the Van Allen radiation belts?

Van Allen radiation belts were discovered in 1958 by James. Van Allen, American physicist who designed instruments on board Explorer 1, first spacecraft launched by the United States. He also lead team of scientists that study and interpreted radiation data. This data captured by Geiger counter aboard Explorer 1 herald the emergence of space physics and ushers in a new era of technology and communications. Prior to launch, scientists expected to measure cosmic rays, high-energy particles primarily originating beyond the solar system which they had previously studied with ground-and balloon-base instruments. After receiving data, Van Allen and his team begin exploring newly discovered radiation belts and their cause and effect.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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