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Test For Insulin Resistance

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

Insulin resistance is a condition in which cells in your body don't respond as well to hormone insulin. Insulin is produced by the pancreas and is important for transportation, use and storage of glucose, body's usual main source of energy. Insulin regulates transport of glucose into skeletal muscles, fat tissue and liver, where glucose is needed for energy production. Normally, after a meal, carbohydrates that you eat are broken down into glucose and other simple sugars that are absorbed by the intestine. This causes blood glucose levels to rise and stimulates the pancreas to release insulin into the bloodstream. The amount of insulin released corresponds to the size and content of the meal. Insulin helps transport glucose into the body's cells, where it is used for energy. As glucose moves into cells and is break down, blood glucose level drops and the pancreas responds by decreasing release of insulin. Insulin works together with glucagon, another pancreatic hormone, to maintain blood glucose levels within a narrow range. If your body's cells are less sensitive to insulin, then less glucose is transported from blood into cells. Blood glucose levels remain high but your cells starve. Your pancreas compensates by producing more insulin to try to move more glucose into cells. In most cases, your pancreas is able to keep pace with the need for extra insulin for many years. Most people with insulin resistance do not develop Diabetes. In some cases, pancreas eventually can't keep up with demand and blood glucose continues to rise, causing type 2 Diabetes. The cause of insulin resistance is not fully understood. Experts think that major contributing factors are being overweight, especially having excess belly fat, and not getting enough exercise. Conditions are also thought to be due partly to genetic factors and ethnicity. Insulin resistance is a main feature of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome is described as a set of features that link excess fat around the waist and insulin resistance to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, as well as other problems, such as stroke. Obesity also increases the risk of various cancers. Elevate blood glucose elevates triglyceride level Low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol High blood pressure note that not everyone with Metabolic Syndrome will necessarily have all four of these features. Over time and left untreated, insulin resistance can lead to other serious conditions. Harmful effects of insulin resistance result from: consequences of elevated blood insulin itself inadequate effects of insulin despite increase in blood insulin levels elevated blood insulin levels over time can have harmful effects, such as: hardening of arteries. Studies have shown a strong association between atherosclerosis and elevated insulin, but it is unclear whether elevated insulin itself causes atherosclerosis.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What Is Insulin Resistance?

For fasting glucose level, you would need to suspend eating and drinking at least eight hours before the test. After a blood sample is drawn and sent to the Lab, diagnosis can be made based on the following results: below 100 mg / dL is the normal result. 100 mg / dL to 125 mg / dL is considered prediabetes. Above 125 mg / dL can serve as diagnosis of Diabetes. Glucose tolerance tests also require an eight - hour fast before the test can be perform. Upon arrival, your doctor will draw blood to use as baseline reference. You would then be asked to drink eight ounces of fluid containing 75 grams of sugar. A second blood test would then be taken two hours later. Diagnosis can be supported based on the following comparative values: prediabetes is defined as fasting blood glucose of 100 mg / dL to 125 mg / dL followed by blood glucose of 140 mg / dL to 199 mg / dL at two hours. Diabetes is defined as fasting blood glucose of 126 mg / dL to higher followed by blood glucose of 200 mg / dL or higher at two hours.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Overview

Insulin Resistance increases your risk of progressing to Diabetes. You could be Insulin Resistant for years without knowing it. This condition typically doesnt trigger any noticeable symptoms. So, it is important your doctor regularly checks your blood glucose levels. The American Diabetes Association estimates that up to 50 percent of people with Insulin Resistance and prediabetes will develop Type 2 Diabetes if they do make lifestyle changes. Being overweight, having high Triglycerides and elevated blood pressure, some people with Insulin Resistance may also develop skin condition known as acanthosis nigricans. It appears as dark, velvety patches often on the backs of the neck, groin, and armpits. Some experts believe buildup of Insulin within skin cells may cause acanthosis nigricans. There is NO cure for this condition. But if another condition causes it, treatment may help natural skin color to return.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Fasting blood glucose test

Fasting blood glucose test will show your fasting blood sugar level. Youd have this test done after not eating or drinking for at least eight hours. High level may require a second test a few days later to confirm reading. If both tests show elevated levels of blood glucose, your doctor may diagnose you with prediabetes or diabetes. Fasting blood sugar levels under 100 milligrams / deciliter are considered normal. Levels between 100 and 125 mg / dL indicate prediabetes. Levels equal to or greater than 126 mg / dL are diagnostic for diabetes. Depending on the lab, these numbers could vary up to 3 mg / dL points in cutoff numbers.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Lab Studies

Routine laboratory measurements in evaluation of patients with Insulin Resistance syndrome include the following: other laboratory studies include measurement of fibrinogen levels and testing of endothelial function. Increased fibrinogen level is a feature of Insulin Resistance syndrome. Endothelium plays an important role in Insulin action, including in regulation of tissue blood flow and in Insulin delivery to interstitium. Endothelial dysfunction is an important component of Insulin Resistance syndrome and includes reduced capillary formation, reduced surface area, and abnormal reactivity of endothelium. Most recently, serum WISP - 1 / CCN4 level, novel pro - inflammatory adipokine, was proposed as a suitable biomarker of obesity, and levels correlate with anthropometric indices of obesity. Biochemical changes associated with endothelial dysfunction include reducing nitric oxide and prostacyclin levels, increasing endothelin and angiotensin activity, and increasing local and systemic inflammation. Blood testing for CRP measurement is widely available. Smoking and abnormal lipids are major contributors to endothelial dysfunction. In theory, Insulin sensitivity can be assessed through the following methods:

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

Participants WHO previously volunteered for various research projects were recruit. A total of 178 normoglycemic men and women aged 25 - 68 years, similar to the general population of New Zealand with respect to BP, BMI, and waist - to - hip ratio, gave informed consent for the euglycemic Insulin Clamp to be perform. After a 10 - h overnight fast, each participant's weight, height, and BP were measured and record. Intravenous cannulae were inserted into the cubital vein for administration of Insulin and Glucose and into the dorsal aspect of hand for arterialized sampling. Basal samples were obtained for measurement of fasting Insulin and lipid profile and for Glucose and liver function tests. Insulin was infused at 40 mU M - 2 min - 1 to achieve hyperinsulinemia. Arterialized samples, achieved using heat - hand technique, were taken from the dorsum of hand every 10 min for immediate Glucose measurements using Yellow Springs Instruments Sidekick Glucose Analyzer. Variable rate Glucose infusion was given for 115 min and adjusted every 10 min according to the negative feedback algorithm used in the Otago Clamp Method. Blood Glucose levels were maintained as close as possible to 4. 5 mmol / L. Plasma Insulin levels were measured at 0 60 90, and 120 min. The Glucose disposal rate was calculated from measurements taken during the final 60 min of Clamp. Isi using total body weight was calculated by dividing average M by average plasma Insulin concentration over the final 60 min. Isi correct for fat - free mass was also calculate. Homa was calculated as described by Matthews et al. The Bennett index was calculated at 1 / lnln. Plasma Insulin was determined using Coat - ACount 125 I radioimmunoassay. This IS polyclonal assay with cross - reactivity with proinsulin at a midcurve of 40%. Interassay coefficient of variation IS < 10%, and detection limit IS 1. 2 - 1. 5 mU / mL. Cholesterol concentration in plasma and lipoprotein fractions was measured enzymatically with Boehringer kits and calibrators. Triglyceride and liver function tests were measured enzymatically using Roche kits and reagents on the Cobas Fara Analyzer. Hdl cholesterol was measured in supernatant after precipitation of apolipoprotein B - containing lipoproteins with phosphotungstate / magnesium chloride solution. Bp was measured in sitting position after 10 - min rest. Waist girth was measured as minimum circumference between iliac crest and rib cage, and hip girth was measured at maximum width over greater trochanters. Whr was calculated from these measurements. Bmi was also calculate. Positive family history of type 2 diabetes was defined as having a first - degree relative with diabetes diagnosed after 30 years of age and not requiring Insulin during the first 6 months from diagnosis.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

RESULTS

You show no Insulin resistance if your Blood Code reveals: Fasting glucose is between 75 - 95 mg / dL. TG: HDL ratio is near 1. 0, + / - 0. 5 Fasting Insulin is between 3 - 8 uIU / mL. Hgba1c level is less than 5. 6%. Glucose / Insulin as HOMA - IR is near 1. Your total body fat is < 28% for men and < 32% for women. You show slight Insulin resistance if you have two or more of the following: Fasting glucose is greater than 95 mg / dL. TG: HDL ratio is greater than 2. Fasting Insulin is greater than 8 uIU / mL. Hgba1c level is greater than 5. 5%. Homa - IR is greater than 1. 5 skin folds at your hip is greater than that at your triceps. You show moderate Insulin resistance if you have three or more of the following: Fasting glucose is greater than 100 mg / dL. TG: HDL ratio is 3 or greater. Fasting Insulin is greater than 10 uIU / mL. Hgba1c level is greater than 5. 7%. Homa - IR is greater than 2. 5 skin fold at your hip measures near twice that of your triceps. You show severe Insulin resistance if you have three or more of the following: Fasting glucose is greater than 110 mg / dL. Greater than 125 mg / dL is Diabetes. * Tg: HDL ratio is greater than 4. Fasting Insulin is greater than 12 uIU / mL. Hgba1c level is greater than 6. 0%. Greater than 6. 4% is diagnostic for Diabetes. * Homa - IR is greater than 3. The skin fold at your hip is over twice that of your triceps.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

CONCLUSIONS

Understanding of Insulin Resistance, Diabetes, and other Metabolic complications in People With HIV has evolved rapidly in recent years, but much remains to be learn. While exact causes of Blood Glucose Abnormalities are not yet know, several contributing factors - including protease inhibitors and body fat changes - have been implicate. Fortunately, research has yielded some useful information about managing Blood Glucose Abnormalities in HIV - positive people taking Antiretroviral Therapy. Regular Blood Glucose Monitoring can detect abnormalities at an early stage, before they progress to more serious conditions. Regardless of HIV status or type of Therapy, life - style changes including weight loss, increased exercise, and balance diet can make major contribution to good health. In some cases, PIs, which have been most strongly associated with blood sugar problems, can be replaced with drugs from different classes - But it is important to construct a regimen that is potent enough to maintain viral suppression. And if needed, antidiabetic medications - which are increasingly being studied in HIV - positive people - are available to help control Glucose and Insulin Abnormalities. By working with their healthcare providers to maintain healthy blood sugar level, people with HIV can potentially prevent development of serious long - term complications such as Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease. Liz Highleyman is a freelance medical writer and editor based in San Francisco.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Working with your doctor

As noted previously, most doctors do routinely test for Insulin Resistance. This may be appropriate when testing wo change recommendations for lifestyle modifications and / or treatment. However, testing can be very helpful when results would clearly inform one choice of dietary modification or medical therapy. If your waist - to - height ratio is larger than 0. 50, You may want to talk with your doctor about ordering follow - up tests to confirm that Insulin Resistance is present, and that you are at risk for blood sugar and metabolic problems. You will likely have to ask for these tests. Dont be afraid to be proactive and educate your doctor about these tests if you request them, as they will be worth the effort. However, be aware that not all health systems provide tests for Insulin levels and you may have to pay the full cost yourself. We recommend three tests, all of which can be done Fasting: Insulin, triglycerides, and Glucose. Fasting Insulin and Fasting triglycerides. With this test, blood test is taken first thing in the morning before you have to eat. Your insulin levels and your triglyceride levels are then measure. Triglycerides are routine tests that are easy to do, but Fasting Insulin, on the other hand, is less commonly ordered and you will likely have to ask for it specifically. One study shows these tests had the strongest association with Insulin Resistance. 41 Since Fasting Insulin by itself is only really helpful if very high or very low, combining mildly elevated Insulin with elevated triglycerides enhances sensitivity, making Insulin Resistance much more likely. Homa - IR - Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance. This is not a test in itself, but is a fancy name for calculation using both your fasting blood Glucose and Fasting Insulin levels. 42 It takes those two results and plugs them into a special calculator and gives you numeric result. The concept is simple: How high does your Insulin need to be to maintain your Fasting Glucose level? As example, fasting Glucose of 95 mg / dL With Insulin of 3 gets a HOMA - IR number of 0. 7, suggesting good Insulin sensitivity. But that same Fasting Glucose With Insulin level of 27 get HOMA - IR number of 6. 3, suggesting clear Insulin Resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Any HOMA - IR number under 1 suggests good Insulin sensitivity, while over 1. 9 indicates early Insulin Resistance and anything over 2. 9 indicate significant Insulin Resistance.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What is pre-diabetes?

The American Diabetes Association recommends that testing to detect pre - Diabetes and type 2 Diabetes be considered in adults without symptoms who are overweight or obese and have one or more additional risk factors for Diabetes. In those without these risk factors, testing should begin at age 45. Risk factors for pre - Diabetes and diabetesin addition to being overweight or obese or being aged 45 or olderinclude following: being physically inactive, having a parent or sibling with Diabetes, having a family background that is African American, Alaska Native, American Indian, Asian American, Hispanic / Latino, or Pacific Islander giving birth to baby weighing more than 9 pounds or being diagnose with gestational diabetesdiabetes first find during pregnancy having high blood pressure140 / 90 or aboveor being treat for high blood pressure having HDL, or good, cholesterol level below 35 mg / dL or triglyceride level above 250 mg / dL having polycystic ovary syndrome, also call PCOS having impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance on previous testing having other conditions associate with insulin resistance, such as severe obesity or acanthosis nigricans having history of cardiovascular disease if test results are normal, testing should be repeat at least every 3 years. Health care providers may recommend more frequent testing depending on initial results and risk status.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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