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Tests For Ovarian Cancer

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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Only about 20% of ovarian cancers are found at an early stage. When Ovarian Cancer is found early, about 94% of patients live longer than 5 years after diagnosis. Ways To find Ovarian Cancer Early Regular Women's Health exams During Pelvic Exam, health care professional feels ovaries and uterus for size, shape, and consistency. The Pelvic Exam can be useful because it can find some female cancers at an early stage, but most early Ovarian tumors are difficult or impossible to feel. Pelvic exams may, however, help find other cancers or female conditions. Women should discuss the need for these exams with their doctor. Screening tests used for cervical cancer, such AS Pap test or HPV test, are effective tests for Ovarian Cancer. Rarely, ovarian cancers are found through Pap tests, but usually they are at an advanced stage. See doctor if you have symptoms. Early cancers of ovaries often cause no symptoms. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer can also be caused by other, less serious conditions. By time Ovarian Cancer is considered AS possible cause of these symptoms, it usually has already spread. Also, some types of Ovarian Cancer can rapidly spread to nearby organs. Prompt attention to symptoms may improve the odds of early diagnosis and successful treatment. If you have symptoms similar to those of Ovarian Cancer almost daily for more than a few weeks, report them right away to your health care professional. Screening tests For Ovarian Cancer Screening tests and exams are used to detect disease, like cancer, in people who do have any symptoms. There has been a lot of research to develop screening test for Ovarian Cancer, but there hasnt been much success so far. 2 tests used most often to screen for Ovarian Cancer are transvaginal Ultrasound and CA - 125 blood test. Tvus is a test that uses sound waves to look at the uterus, Fallopian tubes, and ovaries by putting Ultrasound wand into the vagina. It can help find mass in the ovary, but it can't actually tell if mass is cancer or benign. When it is used for screening, most of mass found are not cancer. The Ca - 125 blood test measures the amount of protein called CA - 125 in blood. Many women with Ovarian Cancer have high levels of CA - 125. This test can be a useful AS tumor marker to help guide treatment in women known to have Ovarian Cancer, because high levels often go down if treatment is working. But checking CA - 125 levels has not been found to be AS useful AS screening test for Ovarian Cancer. The problem with using this test for Ovarian Cancer Screening is that high levels of CA - 125 are more often caused by common conditions such AS endometriosis and Pelvic inflammatory disease. Also, not everyone who has Ovarian Cancer has a high CA - 125 level.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Coping and support

There isn't one right way to deal with ovarian Cancer. Each person tries to find what is best for her. Some women we speak to tried to go on living as near normally as possible. They wanted to continue working, not to be treated as invalid, they didn't want illness to make big changes in their lives, they didn't want to talk about it all the time or sit around feeling sorry for themselves. Some say that doing normal everyday things helps them to feel less ill. Woman who keeps her illness secret at work and behaves as if nothing was wrong, says that she manages to hoodwink others, and herself to some extent. Some women who were in remission felt that they had had cancer but no longer had it; they want to put the experience behind them and return to normal life. But that wasn't always easy. Many talk about having a fighting spirit or being positive. Positive thinking means different things to different people, but generally it is about facing cancer, confronting it, dealing with it and having hope. Some people feel that adopting a positive attitude, rather than feeling sad or having negative thoughts, can help recovery or even prevent cancer from coming back, and some use positive thinking alongside relaxation or visualisation techniques. Many factors influence the development of cancer and there is so far no evidence that positive thinking can alter its course, although research continue. However, some women believe that determination to fight their cancer has helped them recover. Others have read that positive thinking would not cure their cancer, but they believe it could help them to cope with it and to feel better. For some women, being positive means assuming that they will get better, or remaining cheerful and not complaining about their illness. For others, it means not dwelling on the possibility that they might die from cancer but getting on with living their remaining life to the full. Several women stressed that they were not being unrealistic or denying that their illness was serious. Some remain upbeat for the sake of family and friends. Women sometimes try to think about positive aspects of their situation or compare themselves to others worse off than themselves. Some acknowledge it was hard to remain positive, particularly if cancer came back. No - one can be positive all the time, and most people living with cancer will have times when they feel tired, anxious, depressed or angry. Some say that other people sometimes make them feel guilty about having negative thoughts. If people think that fighting cancer is important, it can be additionally hard on them if their fight does not work. Several women point out that no - one should be made to feel guilty or responsible for having their illness. One say she adopted a realistic coping style so that she would be prepared if her cancer return. Another say she approaches her illness in a business - like way.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Tests to diagnose ovarian cancer

There is no single blood test that shows whether you have ovarian cancer. The main one that you may get is called the CA - 125 test. It looks for protein linked to ovarian cancer cells. But itas not enough to make a diagnosis. Some rarer types of ovarian cancer raise levels of other substances in the blood. Your doctor may order tests to look for higher levels of one or all of these: human chorionic gonadotropin alpha - fetoprotein lactate dehydrogenase, another type of ovarian tumor that can raise the amount of estrogen and testosterone in your blood, and also a substance called inhibin. You may have a blood test to check these levels.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Inherited gene mutations

Brca1 and BRCA2 are human genes that produce tumor suppressor proteins. These proteins help repair damaged DNA and, therefore, play a role in ensuring stability of each cell's genetic material. When either of these genes is mutate, or alter, such that its protein product is not made or does not function correctly, DNA damage may not be repaired properly. As a result, cells are more likely to develop additional genetic alterations that can lead to Cancer. Specific inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 most notably increase the risk of female breast and Ovarian cancers, but they have also been associated with increased risks of several additional types of cancer. People who have inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 tend to develop breast and ovarian cancers at younger ages than people who do not have these mutations. Harmful BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation can be inherited from persons mother or father. Each child parent who carries a mutation in one of these genes has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutation. Effects of mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are seen even when a person's second copy of the gene is normal. A woman's lifetime risk of developing Breast and / or Ovarian Cancer is greatly increased if she inherits harmful mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Breast Cancer: About 12% of women in the general population will develop Breast Cancer sometime during their lives. By contrast, recent large studies estimate that about 72% of women who inherit harmful BRCA1 mutation and about 69% of women who inherit harmful BRCA2 mutation will develop Breast Cancer by the age of 80. Like women from the general population, those with harmful BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations also have a high risk of developing new primary cancer in opposite breast in years following Breast Cancer diagnosis. It has been estimated that, by 20 years after first Breast Cancer diagnosis, about 40% of women who inherit harmful BRCA1 mutation and about 26% of women who inherit harmful BRCA2 mutation will develop Cancer in their other breast. Ovarian Cancer: About 1. 3% of women in the general population will develop Ovarian Cancer sometime during their lives. By contrast, it is estimated that about 44% of women who inherit harmful BRCA1 mutation and about 17% of women who inherit harmful BRCA2 mutation will develop Ovarian Cancer by the age of 80. Harmful mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 increase the risk of several cancers in addition to Breast and Ovarian Cancer. These include fallopian tube Cancer and peritoneal Cancer. Men with BRCA2 mutations, and to lesser extent BRCA1 mutations, are also at increased risk of Breast Cancer and Prostate Cancer. Both men and women with harmful BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations are at increased risk of Pancreatic Cancer.


Genetic Testing and Risk Assessment

There's no medical risk associated with being tested for BRCA gene mutation other than slight risks including lightheadedness, bleeding or bruising of having your blood drawn. Other consequences surrounding genetic testing include emotional, financial, medical and social implications of your test results. If you test positive for inherited genetic mutation, you may face: Feelings of anxiety, anger, sadness or depression Concerns over possible insurance discrimination strain family relationships over learning of familial genetic mutation Difficult decisions about preventive measures that have long - term consequences Feelings of inevitability that you 'll get Cancer on other hand, if you test negative for BRCA mutation or your results aren't clear - cut for example, you have genetic variation, but one that hasn't been associate with Cancer in other people you may experience: survivor guilt if your family has know gene mutation that may affect your loved ones uncertainty and concern that your result may not be true negative result your genetic counselor can help you work through your Feelings and provide you and your family support throughout this process.


What causes HBOC?

Hboc is an inherited genetic condition. This means that CAncer Risk is passed from generation to generation in the family. There are 2 primary genes linked with most families who have HBOC: BRCA1 and BRCA2. Brca stands for BReast CAncer. A mutation,s or harmful genetic change, in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 gives woman increased Life Risk of Developing BReast and ovarian cancers. Men with these gene mutations also have increased risk of BReast CAncer and prostate CAncer. There is a slight increase in the risk of other cancers including pancreatic CAncer and melanoma among people with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Not all families with multiple cases of BReast and ovarian CAncer have mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. There are also other genes that have been linked with increased risk of developing BReast and other cancers, such as mutations in TP53, PTEN, CDH1, ATM, CHEK2, or PALB2 tumor suppressor genes and others. Blood tests now include many of these genes, including BRCA1 or BRCA2, in a single, multiple - gene panel test.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Stages of ovarian cancer

Table

StageRelative 5-Year Survival Rate
I90%
IA94%
IB92%
IC85%

Stage I: Cancer is found in one or both ovaries: Stage IA: Cancer is found inside single ovary. Stage IB: Cancer is found inside both ovaries. Stage IC: Cancer is found inside one or both ovaries and one of the following is true: Cancer is also found on the outside surface of one or both ovaries; or capsule of ovary has rupture; or cancer cells are found in fluid of the peritoneal cavity or in washings of the peritoneum. 15% of all cases of ovarian Cancer are diagnosed with they being Stage I.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

Table2

StageRelative 5-Year Survival Rate
II70%
IIA78%
IIB73%
IIC57%

Table3

StageRelative 5-Year Survival Rate
III39%
IIIA59%
IIIB52%
IIIC39%
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Blood test (CA125 test)

Cancer Antigen 125 is a protein found in Ovarian cancer cells. The CA - 125 blood test measures the amount of Cancer Antigen 125 in the bloodstream. Protein is produced by cells and can be found in blood. The CA - 125 blood test may be used to monitor Ovarian Cancer during and after treatment. In some cases, it might be used to check for early signs of Ovarian Cancer in women who are at high risk for disease. However, CA - 125 blood test isnt accurate enough to screen for Ovarian Cancer in all women because many different conditions can cause abnormal CA - 125 levels.


About the CA-125 Blood Test

While it is sometimes used that way, there is no evidence to suggest that doing so is beneficial. The CA - 125 test is most accurate in postmenopausal women with pelvic mass. It is also important to note that in about 20 percent of cases of advanced stage disease, and 50 percent of cases of early stage disease, CA - 125 is not elevate, even though there is ovarian cancer present. Because CA - 125 can be elevated by benign conditions, such as diverticulitis, endometriosis, liver cirrhosis, pregnancy, and uterine fibroids, National Cancer Institute and United States Preventive Services Task Force do not endorse using it to screen women for ovarian Cancer who are at ordinary risk or in the general population.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Ovarian cancer research and studies

Cancer antigen 125 is a high molecular weight glycoprotein that is expressed in a large proportion of epithelial ovarian cancers. It is detected by OC125 monoclonal antibody, which was first described by Bast and colleagues in 1981. 15 Since its discovery, CA - 125 has become well established as a tumor marker for epithelial Ovarian Cancer. However, sensitivity and specificity of CA - 125 is known to be poor. It is only raised in approximately 50% of stage I epithelial Ovarian cancers and in 75% to 90% of patients with advanced disease. 16 - 18 in addition, specificity of test is poor, and false - positive results have been noted in many medical disorders, both malignant 19 and benign. 20 skates and colleagues 21 note that higher sensitivity was obtained for CA - 125 if the rate of change in CA - 125 serum levels in conjunction with age is used as predictor rather than fix cut - off value. In their study, patients with Ovarian Cancer show progressive increases with time, whereas healthy women remain unchanged. Interpreting this additional information in serial CA - 125 values using longitudinal statistical models retrospectively increased sensitivity for detection of Ovarian Cancer from 70% to 86% while maintaining a high level of first - line specificity. In this model, in women without Ovarian Cancer, expect CA - 125 profile is flat at individual baseline level, whereas in women with undiagnosed Ovarian Cancer, expect CA - 125 profile is initially flat, but increases significantly, presumably because of tumor growth. 22 ultrasound allows for detailed imaging of ovaries and detection of morphologic changes that may signify developing malignancy. The transvaginal route is preferred because of more detailed images obtain. Data acquired from ultrasound includes details about the size of ovaries, presence of abnormal Ovarian lesions or other abnormal findings such as pelvic or abdominal fluid, and blood flow within Ovarian mass. All of these data have been evaluated as possible diagnostic variables for early detection of Ovarian Cancer. In addition, persistence of abnormalities on repeat scanning 4 to 6 weeks following initial detection helps reduce false - positive rates. 23 24 Because most ovarian masses detected by ultrasound screening are benign, 25 it is essential that ultrasound images are interpreted in a manner that decreases observer variation and false - positive results. To decrease the number of false - positive results, many screening protocols use morphologic index - base criteria. These scoring scales include Transvaginal ultrasound findings, such as Ovarian volume, cyst wall structure, papillary vegetations, septation, and echogenicity for prediction of malignancy. There is no standardized index, with systems varying in number and type of variables evaluate. 26 - 29 Sassone and colleagues 30 report index that scores four different morphologic characteristics of Ovarian cyst architecture, including wall structure, cyst wall thickness, septation, and echogenicity. The scoring index had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 83% in differentiation of benign masses from malignant masses. In different morphologic index, 31, which scores only three structural characteristics, sensitivity for Ovarian Cancer detection was 89%, and specificity was 70%.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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