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That Certain Age

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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That Certain Age

Directed byEdward Ludwig
Produced byJoe Pasternak
Screenplay byBruce Manning Charles Brackett (uncredited} Billy Wilder (uncredited)
Story byF. Hugh Herbert
StarringDeanna Durbin, Melvyn Douglas
Music byFrank Skinner (uncredited)
CinematographyJoseph A. Valentine
Edited byBernard W. Burton
Production companyUniversal Pictures
Distributed byUniversal Pictures
Release dateOctober 7, 1938 ( 1938-10-07 ) (US)
Running time95 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish

As of October 15, 216 025 deaths from coronavirus disease 2019 have been reported in the United States *; however, this number might underestimate the total impact of the pandemic on mortality. Measures of excess deaths have been used to estimate the impact of public health pandemics or disasters, particularly when there are questions about underascertainment of deaths directly attributable to give event or cause. Excess deaths are defined as the number of people who have died from all causes, in excess of the expected number of deaths due to place and time. This report describes trends and demographic patterns in excess deaths during January 26-October 3 2020. Expect numbers of deaths were estimated using overdispersed Poisson regression models with spline terms to account for seasonal patterns, using provisional Mortality data from CDCs National Vital Statistics System. Weekly numbers of deaths by age group and race / ethnicity were assessed to examine the difference between the weekly number of deaths occurring in 2020 and the average number occurring in the same week during 2015-2019 and percentage change in 2020. Overall, estimated 299 028 excess deaths have occurred in the United States from late January through October 3 2020, with two thirds of these attributed to COVID-19. The largest percentage increases were seen among adults aged 25-44 years and among Hispanic or Latino people. These results provide information about the degree to which COVID-19 deaths might be underascertained and inform efforts to prevent mortality directly or indirectly associated with COVID-19 pandemic, such as efforts to minimize disruptions to health care. Estimates of excess deaths can provide a comprehensive account of mortality relating to the COVID-19 pandemic, including deaths that are directly or indirectly attributable to COVID-19. Estimates of numbers of deaths directly attributable to COVID-19 might be limited by factors such as availability and use of diagnostic testing and accurate and complete reporting of cause of death information on death certificate. Excess death analyses are not subject to these limitations because they examine historical trends in all-cause mortality to determine the degree to which observed numbers of deaths differ from historical norms. In April 2020, CDCs National Center for Health Statistics begin publishing data on excess deaths associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. This report describes trends and demographic patterns in the number of excess deaths occurring in the United States from January 26 2020, through October 3 2020, and differences by age and race / ethnicity using provisional Mortality data from NVSS. Excess deaths are typically defined as the number of people who have died from all causes, in excess of the expected number of deaths for give place and time. A detailed description of the methodology for estimating excess deaths has been described previously. Briefly, expect numbers of deaths are estimated using overdispersed Poisson regression models with spline terms to account for seasonal patterns. Average expect number, as well as upper bound of 95% prediction interval, are used as thresholds to determine the number of excess deaths and percentage excess.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Plot

Because sensitive and specific influenza testing is seldom conducted prior to death of individuals with influenza-compatible illnesses and because of changes over time in use of influenza-specific ICD codes, simply counting deaths for which influenza has been cod as the underlying cause on death certificates can lead to both over-and underestimates Of magnitude Of influenza-associate Mortality. Thus, it has been standard practice for decades in the United States and other developed countries with temperate climates to use statistical modeling techniques to estimate ANNUAL deaths associated with influenza. 6 18-23 figure 2 illustrate why statistical modeling techniques are commonly accepted for estimating influenza-associated deaths. Dot lines in this figure represent the percentage of respiratory specimens submitted to World Health Organization collaborating laboratories in the United States that test positive for influenza A. Solid line plots rates of deaths for which the underlying cause was attributed to pneumonia or influenza. Peaks in influenza activity are clearly and consistently associated with peaks in rates of pneumonia and influenza deaths. Figure 3 displays observed number of pneumonia and influenza deaths and estimated numbers of influenza-associate deaths by influenza virus type and subtype. This graph shows that CDC's statistical model only attributes deaths to influenza when influenza viruses are circulating and that it attributes deaths separately by type and subtype. Finally, World Health Organization surveillance data reveals that when influenza viral activity begins early or late in the respiratory illness season, peaks in rates of pneumonia and influenza deaths, respiratory and circulatory deaths, and all-cause deaths coincide with peaks in influenza virus circulation. For example, when influenza viral activity peaks early in the 2003-2004 season, pneumonia and influenza deaths also peak early. In three seasons when influenza activity peaks very late in season, peaks in pneumonia and influenza deaths also occur within two weeks of peaks in influenza viral activity. Contrary to Doshi's suggestion that estimates of influenza-associate deaths have varied dramatically in various publications, 9 SEASONAL influenza-relate death estimates are actually markedly similar, especially considering that they use a variety of statistical models. 6-8 Of course, when different outcomes are model, somewhat different estimates of influenza-associate deaths are obtain. For example, death estimates cited by Doshi from Thompson et al. 6 were derived by modeling underlying pneumonia and influenza deaths, whereas estimates by Dushoff et al. 8 were based on modeling deaths for which pneumonia or influenza was listed anywhere on the death certificate. Dushoff et al. Estimates were therefore higher. Most importantly, from a policy perspective, majority of influenza-associate death estimates made for the United States are in the same range, demonstrating the importance of influenza Prevention and Control strategies.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Production

This Fact Sheet provides general information about Federal Youth EMPLOYMENT Provisions applicable to NONAGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS. Different standards apply to farm WORK. The Department OF Labor is committed to helping young workers find those positive and early EMPLOYMENT experiences that can be so important to their development, but work must be safe. Youth EMPLOYMENT Provisions OF FLSA were enacted to ensure that when young people work, work does not jeopardize their health, well-being or educational opportunities. Employers are subject to Youth EMPLOYMENT Provisions generally UNDER the same coverage criteria as established FOR other Provisions OF FLSA. It is an unfortunate fact that children do get injure, even kill, in the workplace. The National Institute FOR Occupational Safety and Health estimates that 160 000 American children suffer occupational injuries every yearand 54 800 OF these injuries are serious enough to warrant emergency room treatment. Both Federal and State laws govern EMPLOYMENT of young workers and when both are applicable, laws with stricter standards must be obey. Require MINORS to obtain working papers or WORK permits, though many States do; restrict the number of HOURS or times of day that workers 16 years of age and older may be employ, though many States do; apply where no FLSA EMPLOYMENT relationship exist; regulate or require such things as breaks, meal periods, or fringe benefits; regulate such issues as discrimination, harassment, verbal or physical abuse, or morality, though other Federal and State laws may. FLSA and Youth EMPLOYMENT regulations issued at 29 CFR, Part 570, establish both HOURS and Occupational Standards FOR Youth. Children of any age are generally permitted to work for businesses entirely owned by their parents, except those UNDER age 16 may not be employed in mining or manufacturing and no one UNDER 18 may be employed in any occupation the Secretary OF Labor has declared to be hazardous. 18-Once youth reaches 18 years OF AGE, he or she is no longer subject to Federal Youth EMPLOYMENT Provisions. 16-Basic minimum AGE FOR EMPLOYMENT. Sixteen-AND 17-YEAR-OLDS may be employed FOR unlimited HOURS in any occupation other than those declared Hazardous by the Secretary OF Labor. 14-Young persons 14 and 15 years OF AGE may be employed outside school HOURS in a variety OF non-manufacturing and non-Hazardous jobs FOR limited periods of time and UNDER specified conditions. UNDER 14-Children UNDER 14 years OF AGE may not be employed in non-agricultural OCCUPATIONS covered by FLSA. Permissible EMPLOYMENT FOR such children is limited to WORK that is exempt from FLSA. Children may also perform work not covered by FLSA, such as completing minor chores around private homes or casual baby-sitting. OCCUPATIONS ban FOR ALL MINORS UNDER AGE OF 18 HO 1. Manufacturing or storing explosives bans MINORS working where explosives are manufactured or store, but permits work in retail stores selling ammunition, gun shops, trap and skeet ranges, and police stations.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Discussion

Following opening remarks by moderator Pamela Starke-Reed of National Institutes of Health division of Nutrition Research Coordination, Bethesda, Maryland, two speakers address changing size and demographics of nations Aging populations. First, Kevin Kinsella of the National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Maryland, describes tremendous heterogeneity in US Aging populations and identifies key health and socioeconomic trends among these populations. Then, Nancy Wellman of Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, discussed food shopping, preparation, and consumption habits of older adults, as well as food insecurity trends among older adults. She emphasized that most Americans aged 65 years and older live not in nursing homes or other institutional settings but in the community and that most Food and Nutrition programs aim at providing services for these community-dwelling Older adults are under-fund or disregard. Presentations provide a wealth of background information on aging populations and serve as point of reference for the remainder of workshop presentations and discussions. Both Kinsellas observations about heterogeneity among aging populations and Wellmans remarks about the need to provide better food and nutrition services to community-dwelling older adults resurface many times during later discussions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Background

Jeremy AW Gold, MD 1 2; Lauren M. Rossen, PhD 3; Farida B. Ahmad, MPH 3; Paul Sutton, PhD 3; Zeyu Li, MPH 4; Phillip P. Salvatore, PhD 1 2; Jayme P. Coyle, PhD 1; Jennifer DeCuir, MD, PhD 1 2; Brittney N. Baack, MPH 1; Tonji M. Durant, PhD 1; Kenneth L. Dominguez, MD 1; S. Jane Henley, MSPH 1; Francis B. Annor, PhD 1; Jennifer Fuld, PhD 1; Deborah L. Dee, PhD 1; Achuyt Bhattarai, MD 1; Brendan R. Jackson, MD 1 during February 12-October 15 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic result in approximately 7 900 000 aggregate report cases and approximately 216 000 deaths in United States. * Among COVID-19-associate deaths reported to National case Surveillance during February 12-May 18, persons aged 65 years and members of racial and ethnic minority groups were disproportionately represent. This report describes demographic and geographic trends in COVID-19-associate deaths report to the National Vital Statistics System during May 1-August 31, 2020, by 50 States and the District of Columbia. During this period, 114 411 COVID-19-associate deaths were report. Overall, 78. 2% of decedents were aged 65 years, and 53. 3% were male; 51. 3% were non-Hispanic White, 24. 2% were Hispanic or Latino, and 18. 7% were non-Hispanic Black. The number of COVID-19-associate deaths decreased from 37 940 in May to 17 718 in June; subsequently, counts increased to 30 401 in July and declined to 28 352 in August. From May to August, percentage distribution of COVID-19-associate deaths by US Census region increased from 23. 4% to 62. 7% in the South and from 10. 6% to 21. 4% in the West. Over the same period, percentage distribution of decedents who were Hispanic increased from 16. 3% to 26. 4%. COVID-19 remains a major public health threat regardless of age or race and ethnicity. Deaths continue to occur disproportionately among older people and certain racial and ethnic minorities, particularly among Hispanic people These results can inform public health messaging and mitigation efforts focus on prevention and early detection of infection among disproportionately affected groups. In NVSS data, confirm or presume COVID-19-associate deaths are assigned to International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision code U07. 1 as contributing or underlying cause of death on death certificate. The underlying cause of death is condition that begins chain of events ultimately leading to the person's death. COVID-19 was the underlying cause for approximately 92% of COVID-19-associate deaths and was a contributing cause for approximately 8% during the investigation period. NVSS data in this report exclude deaths among residents of territories and foreign countries. Using NVSS data from May 1 through August 31, 2020, CDC tabulated numbers and percentages of COVID-19-associate deaths by age, sex, race and ethnicity, US Census region, and location of death. Because only 0. 5% of COVID-19 decedents were either NHPI or multiracial, and count < 10 are suppressed in NVSS to maintain confidentiality, These groups were combined into one group for analysis Age, race and ethnicity, and place of death were unknown for two, 465, and 46 deaths, respectively.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Cost to Nation

4 million adults in the United States, which is about 1 in 4 adults. It is the leading cause of work disability in the United States, one of the most common Chronic conditions, and common cause of Chronic pain. The Total Cost attributable to Arthritis and Related Conditions was about $304 billion in 2013. Of this amount, nearly $140 billion was for medical costs and $164 billion was for indirect costs associated with losing earnings. 7 Alzheimer's Disease, type of dementia, is an irreversible, progressive brain disease that affects about 5. 7 million Americans. It is the sixth leading cause of death among all adults and the fifth leading cause for those aged 65 or older. In 2010, costs of treating Alzheimer's Disease were estimated to fall between $159 billion and $215 billion. 8 by 2040, these costs are projected to jump to between $379 billion and $500 billion annually. Cavities are one of the most common Chronic diseases in the United States. One in five children aged 6 to 11 years and one in four adults have untreated cavities. Untreated cavities can cause pain and infections that may lead to problems eating, speaking and learning. On average, 34 million school hours are lost each year because of unplanned dental care, and over $45 billion is lost in productivity due to dental disease. 10 11 excessive alcohol use is responsible for 88 000 deaths in the United States each year, including 1 in 10 deaths among working-age adults. 14 15 in 2010, excessive alcohol use cost the US economy $249 billion, or $2. 05 drink, and $2 of every $5 of these costs was paid by the public. Binge drinking is responsible for over half deaths and three-quarters of costs due to excessive alcohol use. 16 1. Buttorff C, Ruder T, Bauman M. Multiple Chronic Conditions in United States pdf icon external icon. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corp.; 2017. 2. Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services. National Health Expenditures 2017 Highlights pdf icon external icon. 3. Benjamin EJ, Virani SS, Callaway CW, et al. Heart Disease and stroke statistics2018 update: Report from American Heart Association. Circulation. 2018; 137: e67-e492. 4. National Cancer Institute. Cancer Prevalence and Cost of Care Projections external icon. Access June 29 2018. 5. American Diabetes Association. Economic Costs of Diabetes in US in 2017. Diabetes Care 2018; 41: 917-928. PubMed abstract external icon. 6. Finkelstein EA, Trogdon JG, Cohen JW, Dietz W. Annual medical spending attributable to obesity: payer-and service-specific estimates. Health Aff 2009; 28: w822-31. PubMed abstract external icon. 7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cost of Arthritis in US Adults. Access June 29 2018. 8. Hurd MD, Martorell P, Delavande, Mullen KJ, Langa KM. Monetary Costs of dementia in the United States. N Engl J Med 2013; 368: 1326-34. 9. Dieleman JL, Cao J, Chapin, Chen C, Li Z, Liu, et al. US Health Care spending by payer and Health condition, 1996-2016. JAMA 2020; 323: 863-884. PubMed abstract external icon.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Social media use over time

The share of US adults who say they use certain online platforms or apps is statistically unchanged from where it stood in early 2018 despite a long stretch of controversies over privacy, fake news and censorship on social media, according to a new Pew Research Center survey conducted Jan. 8 to Feb. 7 2019. More broadly, steady growth in adoption that social platforms have experienced in the United States over the past decade also appears to be slowing. Shares of adults who say they use Facebook, Pinterest, LinkedIn and Twitter are each largely the same as in 2016, with only Instagram showing an uptick in use during this time period. Facebook-which recently celebrated its 15 anniversary-remain one of the most widely used social media sites among adults in the US. Roughly seven-in-ten adults say they ever use platform. YouTube is the only other online platform measure that matches Facebooks reach: 73% of adults report using video sharing site. But certain online platforms, most notably Instagram and Snapchat, have especially strong following among young adults.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The US Population Is Aging

The number of Americans ages 65 and older will more than double over the next 40 years, reaching 80 million in 2040. The number of adults ages 85 and older, group most often needing help with basic personal Care, will nearly quadruple between 2000 and 2040. The nation is aging. By 2040, about one in five Americans will be age 65 or older, up from about one in eight in 2000. Because younger people are much more likely than older people to work and pay taxes that finance Social Security, Medicare, and all other public-sector activities, Population Aging could strain government budgets. The number of workers sharing the cost of supporting Social Security beneficiaries will soon plummet unless future employment patterns change dramatically. The Latest Social Security Administration Projections indicate that there will be 2. 1 worker per Social Security beneficiary in 2040, down from 3. 7 in 1970. Declining fertility rates partly account for Population Aging. Total fertility ratethe number of children women bearplummeted during the Great Depression in the 1930s and then soared in the 1950s after World War II. Fertility then declined steeply until the mid 1970s. The total fertility rate increased slightly after 1975 and now stands at about 2. 1, roughly the minimum rate needed to maintain population size without any net immigration. Improvements in life expectancy have also propelled an increase in the older population. Between 1900 and 1960, life expectancy at birth increased from 51 years to 74 years for men and from 58 years to 80 years for women, primarily through reductions in infant, childhood, and early adult mortality. Longevity gains since 1960, fuelled by declining death rates at older ages, have been slower, especially for women. Life expectancy's future course is uncertain but could grow dramatically. Some experts claim that half of girls born today will live until age 100. Older Americans are also living longer. In 1960, men who turned 62 could expect to live another 15 years. By 2040, they will likely live for another 22 years. For 62-year-old women, gain in remaining life expectancy between 1960 and 2040 will be four years. If the earliest eligibility age for Social Security Retirement benefits remains 62, rising life expectancy will increase the number of years older adults receive benefits.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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