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The Central Nervous System

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and controls voluntary actions, speech, senses, think, and memory. The surface of the cerebral cortex has grooves or infoldings, largest of which are term fissures. Some fissures separate lobes. Convolutions of the cortex give it a wormy appearance. Each convolution is delimit by two sulci and is also called gyrus. Cerebrum is divided into two halves, known as right and left hemispheres. A mass of fibers called corpus callosum link hemispheres. The right hemisphere controls voluntary limb movements on the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls voluntary limb movements on the right side of the body. Almost every person has one dominant hemisphere. Each hemisphere is divided into four lobes, or areas, which are interconnect. Frontal lobes are located in front of the brain and are responsible for voluntary movement and, via their connections with other lobes, participate in execution of sequential tasks; speech output; organizational skills; and certain aspects of behavior, mood, and memory. Parietal lobes are located behind frontal lobes and in front of occipital lobes. They process sensory information such as temperature, pain, taste, and touch. In addition, processing includes information about numbers, attentiveness to the position of one's body parts, space around one's body, and one's relationship to this space. Temporal lobes are located on each side of the brain. They process memory and auditory information and speech and language functions. Occipital lobes are located at the back of the brain. They receive and process visual information. The cortex, also called gray matter, is the external layer of the brain and predominantly contains neuronal bodies. Gray matter participates actively in the storage and processing of information. An isolated clump of nerve cell bodies in gray matter is term nucleus. Cells in gray matter extend their projections, called axons, to other areas of the brain. Fibers that leave the cortex to conduct impulses toward other areas are term efferent fibers, and fibers that approach the cortex from other areas of the Nervous System are term afferent. Fibers that go from the motor cortex to the brainstem or spinal cord receive names that generally reflect connections. Axons are surrounded in their course outside gray matter by myelin, which has a glistening whitish appearance and thus gives rise to the term white matter. Cortical areas receive their names according to their general function or lobe name. If in charge of motor function, area is called the motor cortex. If in charge of sensory function, area is called the sensory or somesthetic cortex. The Calcarine or visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe and receives visual input. The auditory cortex, localized in the temporal lobe, processes sounds or verbal input.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Grey and white matter

The highest concentration of neuronal cells is in the cerebellum, which has more than the rest of the brain combine. Gyri and sulci, or ridges and grooves located in the brain, are present to increase surface area. This increased surface area is crucial for effective functioning as more neurons can be present in contrast to brain with a flat surface. Besides this group of neuronal cells, axons of grey matter are not heavily myelinated, unlike white matter, which contains high concentration of myelin. Grey matter contains the majority of neuron somas, making it appear tan with circulation but grey when prepared for examination outside of the body. These somas are circular structures that house nucleus of cells. Grey matter also extends from the brain into the spinal cord. Grey matter creates a hornlike structure throughout the inside of the spinal cord while white matter makes up surrounding sections of spinal cord. Grey matter does extend to the spinal cord to make signaling more effective. Unlike the structure of the spinal cord, grey matter in the brain is present in the outermost layer. Grey matter surrounding the cerebrum is known as the cortex of the brain. There are two major cortexes in the brain, cerebral cortex and the cerebellar cortex. There are also areas of grey matter that are in the inner sections of the brain; however, these areas are not known as cortexes but instead are called nucleus or nuclei. Grey matter has a large number of neurons present, which allow it to process information and release new information through axon signaling found in white matter. Grey matter throughout the central nervous system allows individuals to control movement, memory, and emotions. Different areas of the brain are responsible for various functions, and grey matter plays a significant role in all aspects of human life. Similarly to the brain, grey matter is also split into specific sections in the spinal cord. Three sections are the anterior grey column, posterior grey column, and lateral grey column.

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The brain

Together, Central Nervous System and peripheral Nervous systems transmit and process sensory information and coordinate bodily functions. The brain and spinal cord function as control center. They receive data and feedback from sensory organs and from nerves throughout the body, process information, and send commands back out. Nerve pathways of PNS carry incoming and outgoing signals. Twelve pairs of cranial nerves connect the brain to eyes, ears, and other sensory organs and to head and neck muscles. Thirty - one pairs of spinal nerves branch out from the spinal cord to tissues of the thorax, abdomen, and limbs. Each nerve is responsible for relaying sensory information, sending motor commands, or both.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Overview

The nervous system is organized into two parts: central nervous system, which consists of the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system, which connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body. An image depicting the central nervous system can be seen below. In central nervous system, brain and spinal cord are the main centers where correlation and integration of nervous information occur. Both the brain and spinal cord are covered with a system of membranes, called meninges, and are suspended in cerebrospinal fluid; they are further protected by bones of the skull and vertebral column. The central nervous system is composed of large numbers of excitable nerve cells and their processes, called neurons, which are supported by specialized tissue called neuroglia. Long processes of nerve cells are called axons or nerve fibers. The interior of the central nervous system is organized into gray and white matter. Gray matter consists of nerve cells embed in neuroglia; it has a gray color. White matter consists of nerve fibers embed in neuroglia; it has a white color due to the presence of lipid material in myelin sheaths of many of nerve fibers. Billions of neurons in the brain are connected to neurons throughout the body by trillions of synapses. Jasvinder Chawla, MD, MBA, Chief of Neurology, Hines Veterans Affairs Hospital; Professor of Neurology, Loyola University Medical Center Jasvinder Chawla, MD, MBA is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Neurology, American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, American Clinical Neurophysiology Society, American Medical Association Disclosure: Nothing to disclose. Thomas R Gest, PhD Professor of Anatomy, University of Houston College of Medicine Thomas R Gest, PhD is a member of the following Medical societies: American Association of Clinical Anatomists Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diagnosing nervous system conditions

Evaluating and diagnosing nervous system problems can be complex. Many of the same symptoms occur in different ways among different disorders. And, many disorders don't have clear causes, markers, or tests. Ct scan. This imaging test uses X - rays and computer technology to make horizontal, or axial, images of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the brain, bones, muscles, fat, and organs. Ct scans are more detailed than general X - rays. This test can be done quickly and most children can undergo CT scan without sedation. Electroencephalogram. This test records the brain's continuous, electrical activity through electrodes attached to the scalp. Mri. This test uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and computer to make detailed images of organs and structures within the body. This study can't be done if your child has any metal in their body. This includes braces, or certain dental appliances. Sometimes it is necessary to remove braces or dental devices in preparation for MRI. Talk to your child's healthcare provider to determine if this is necessary. Mri studies take longer than CT, and machines make a lot of noise. Young children may require sedation to remain still throughout the MRI exam. Electrodiagnostic tests. These include Electromyography and nerve conduction velocity. These studies evaluate and diagnose disorders of nerves, muscles and motor neurons. Electrodes are inserted into muscle, or placed on skin overlying nerve, muscle, or muscle group, and electrical activity and muscle response are record. Positron emission tomography scan. This computer - base imaging test provides a picture of the brain's activity rather than its structure by measuring levels of injected substance with tracer molecule,ss most often glucose. Arteriogram. This test provides an image of arteries and veins going to and through the brain. Ct angiography, newer and less invasive technique, is sometimes used in Cerebral Spinal fluid analysis. This test takes sample of cerebrospinal fluid from the spinal cord for examination. Evoked potentials. This test records the brain's electrical response to visual, auditory, and sensory stimuli. Myelogram. Test that uses dye injected into the spinal canal to make structure clearly visible on X - rays. Though once common, this is rarely used ultrasound. This test uses high - frequency sound waves and a computer to create images of blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Ultrasounds are used to view internal organs as they function, and to assess blood flow through various vessels. Ultrasound of the brain can only be done in the first few months of life while infant's fontanels, or soft spots, are open. Neurosonography. This test uses ultra high - frequency sound waves to evaluate structures of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and other structures. You can't explain the test to an infant, but you can help your baby feel more secure during the test by bringing a special blanket, toy, or pacifier. In many studies, sedation or anesthesia is used, which requires child to fast before procedure.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diseases of the nervous system

The term peripheral nervous system refers to any part of the nervous system that lies outside of the brain and spinal cord. The CNS is separate from the peripheral nervous system, although the two systems are interconnect. There are a number of differences between CNS and PNS; one difference is the size of cells. Nerve axons of CNS, slender projections of nerve cells that carry impulses, are much shorter. Pns nerve axons can be up to 1 meter long whereas, within CNS, they are rarely longer than a few millimeters. Another major difference between CNS and PNS involves regeneration. Much of PNS has the ability to regenerate; if a nerve in your finger is sever, it can regrow. Cns, however, does not have this ability. Components of the central nervous system are further split into myriad parts. Below, we will describe some of these sections in a little more detail.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Study of the nervous system

The mammalian nervous system is a complex biological organ, which enables many animals, including humans, to function in a coordinated fashion. The original design of this system is preserved across many animals through evolution; thus, adaptive physiological and behavioral functions are similar across many animal species. Comparative study of physiological functioning in nervous systems of different animals lends insights into their behavior and their mental processing and makes it easier for us to understand human brain and behavior. In addition, studying the development of the nervous system in growing humans provides a wealth of information about changes in its form and behaviors that result from this change. The nervous system is divided into central and peripheral nervous systems, and the two heavily interact with one another. The peripheral nervous system controls volitional and nonvolitional behaviors using cranial and spinal nerves. The central nervous system is divided into forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain, and each division performs a variety of tasks; for example, cerebral cortex in the forebrain houses sensory, motor, and associative areas that gather sensory information, process information for perception and memory, and produce responses based on incoming and inherent information. To study the nervous system, number of methods have evolved over time; These methods include examining brain lesions, microscopy, electrophysiology, electroencephalography, and many scanning technologies.


Introduction

The Nervous system is a complex network that enables an organism to interact with its surroundings. Sensory components that detect environmental stimuli, and motor components that provide skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle control, as well as control of glandular secretions, are coordinated in a system to compel appropriate motor responses to stimuli or sensory inputs that have been receive, store, and process. The nervous system is made up of vast neural networks; signaling within these circuits enables thinking, language, feeling, learning, memory, and all function and sensation. It is well - established that through plasticity of existing cells, our nervous systems can adapt to situations not previously encounter, but it also has been shown that neural stem cells are plastic and involved in creating new connections in adaptation and response to injury. Nscs play a fundamental role in development, and in ability to respond to stimuli in the environment and injury.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Spinal cord

Physical damage to the spinal cord may result in paralysis, which is loss of sensation and movement in part of the body. Paralysis generally affects all areas of the body below the level of injury because nerve impulses are interrupted and can no longer travel back and forth between brain and body beyond that point. If injury to the spinal cord produces nothing more than swelling, symptoms may be transient. However, if nerve fibers in the spinal cord are badly damage, loss of function may be permanent. Experimental studies have shown that spinal nerve fibers attempt to regrow, but tissue destruction usually produces scar tissue that cannot be penetrated by regrowing nerves, as well as other factors that inhibit nerve fiber regrowth in the central nervous system.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Central glial cells

Neurons connect with one another to send and receive messages in the brain and spinal cord. Many neurons working together are responsible for every decision make, every emotion or sensation felt, and every action take. The complexity of the central nervous system is amazing: there are approximately 100 billion neurons in the brain and spinal cord combine. As many as 10 000 different subtypes of neurons have been identify, each specializing in sending and receiving certain types of information. Each neuron is made up of a cell body, which houses nucleus. Axons and dendrites form extensions from the cell body. Astrocytes, kind of glial cell, are primary support cells of the brain and spinal cord. They make and secrete proteins called neurotrophic factors. They also break down and remove proteins or chemicals that might be harmful to neurons. Astrocytes aren't always beneficial: after injury, they divide to make new cells that surround the injury site, forming a glial scar that is a barrier to regenerating axons. Microglia are immune cells for the brain. After injury, they migrate to the site of injury to help clear away dead and dying cells. They can also produce small molecules called cytokines that trigger cells of the immune system to respond to injury site. This clean - up process is likely to play an important role in recovery of function following spinal injury.


Introduction

The central nervous system comprises a network of approximately 10 to 12 neurons, which mediate transmission of action potentials. Despite the essential function of neurons, about 90% of cells in CNS are glia. Glia were originally believed to be passive cells that only act physically to support neurons, hence the name glia, meaning glue. However, it is now known that glia plays an active role in many central homeostatic processes and also during development. Four main types of glia exist, namely astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and microglia. Further information on glia can be found in related links or by viewing all neuroscience and glia resources.


Astrocytes

Astrocytes represent the most abundant fraction of glial cell types in the adult brain. Amongst all glial cell types, several functional roles of astrocytes in healthy adult brain are already well describe. These functions are broad, spanning many aspects of brain physiology and are so numerous that addressing all of them is far beyond the scope of this review. In short, maintenance of water and ion homeostasis, participation in tripartite synapse as well as contribution to BBB maintenance are among the most important astrocytic functions. Astrocytes are, assumedly due to their high abundance, best studied and most well described glial cell population in adult CNS. Therefore, idea of specifically ablating astrocytes in order to find out their specific functions has been developed much earlier compared to other glial cell populations. Nevertheless, there is only a small number of ablation studies in the field that target astrocyte population under physiological conditions. To specifically deplete the astrocyte population in adult healthy brain, again both pharmacological as well as genetic approaches are available and have been used. Glutamate homologue L - aminoadipate is the only pharmacological approach to ablate astrocytes so far and has shown to be a specific toxin for astrocytes rather than for neurons or other glial cell types when locally injected into site of interest. Suicide gene expression exploited by this cell population has mainly made use of intermediate filament glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter that is only expressed by a subset of astrocytes in specific regions of the healthy brain. Either constitutively active or tamoxifen - inducible GFAP promoter was used in combination with the already mentioned DTA - system or with bacterial nitroreductase. Ntr is another suicide gene where expression alone is not toxic, but enzyme metabolizes systemically give prodrugs into toxic agent. The advantage of NTR over suicide genes mentioned earlier is that they are not only target to proliferating cells, producing toxic agents that are independent of proliferation. Khurgel et al. Use local ablation of astrocytes to reveal their role in healthy amygdala of adult rats. Injections of L - AAA successfully generate 100% astrocyte - deprive zone with a size of 200 - 500 m within 45 h after injection which remains for a further 7 days. Depletion was accompanied by some microglial reactivity but without effects on neuronal density. In contrast to functional outcome after drug - induced astrocyte ablation, genetic ablation results in severe neuronal degeneration. With this specific approach, predominantly Bergmann glia, astrocytic subtype located in the cerebellum, were target in mice. Gross ablation of Bergmann glia resulted in severe developmental problems in motor coordination of these mice, resembling hallmark of cerebellar dysfunction. The Regional specificity of ablation observed might be explained by how the mouse line they generated was used as NTR - expression was detected mainly in these cells.


Oligodendrocytes

These cells are responsible for insulating axons in the central nervous system. They carry out this function by producing a myelin sheath which wraps around part of the axon. A Single oligodendrocyte has the capacity to myelinate up to 50 axonal segments. They are equivalent to Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Further information on myelin sheath can be found here. These cells are responsible for insulating axons in the central nervous system. They carry out this function by producing a myelin sheath which wraps around part of the axon. A Single oligodendrocyte has the capacity to myelinate up to 50 axonal segments. They are equivalent to Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Further information on myelin sheath can be found here.


Microglia

In very simplified view, Microglia are immunocompetent and phagocytic cells of the nervous system. Although they are part of brain glia, they do not originate from ectodermal tissue like all other glial cells, but from yolk - sac progenitors that only populate the brain during development. Microglia have been shown to cover huge volume of adult brain parenchyma, with individual non - overlapping domains constantly sensing the environment through rapid movements of their fine filopodia, which react to any kind of insult. As microglia in the brain have the same origin and express many common cellular markers as peripheral macrophages / monocytes, it has proven difficult to only ablate one but not other cell type. Additionally, macrophages are able to invade the brain upon injury or any other disturbance of the blood brain barrier, meaning that the roles of Microglia and macrophages have been difficult to disentangle. Several Microglia Ablation studies try to address the issue of how these cells maintain their homeostasis in adult healthy brain. Microglia could either derive from brain intrinsic stem cell source or from peripheral derive progenitor originating from the same developmental source that infiltrates the brain at some stage and contribute to the Microglia population. From these studies, it seems that at least under physiological conditions, two populations remain separated. In addition, there is question about other roles played by Microglia besides surveying healthy tissue, as Microglia have been shown to be major players in synaptic pruning during development and in synaptic modulation both in normal as well as under pathological conditions. Further Microglia Ablation studies could therefore provide a potential tool to describe yet unknown Microglia - associate functions in adult brain physiology. Although several studies have depleted myeloid cells - including Microglia - during development by inserting deleterious mutations in macrophage - specific genes, this review will focus only on Microglia Ablation studies performed in the adult brain. To successfully ablate adult Microglia, pharmacological and genetic strategies have been develop. As pharmacological approach, use of systemically administered drug PLX3397, which specifically targets Colony - stimulating factor 1 receptor signaling, has been well establish. Csf - 1R is uniquely expressed on myeloid cells including brain resident Microglia, making only these cells susceptible to death. Use of clodronate liposomes is the second pharmacological way to specifically deplete phagocytic cells, including Microglia. After phagocytic cells take up liposomal particles and release encapsulate, toxic clodronate, they undergo apoptosis. As genetic approach, diphtheria toxin or its subunit, originally derived from bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, is a widely used suicide gene that has already been applied in Ablation approaches. Its mode of action is cytosolic inhibition of cellular protein synthesis, leading to cell death.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Cranial nerves

Spinal nerves emerge sequentially from the spinal cord with the spinal nerve closest to the head emerging in space above the first cervical vertebra. Cranial nerves emerge from the central nervous system above this level. Each cranial nerve is pair and is present on both sides. The number of cranial nerves is based on the order in which they emerge from the brain, front to back. Terminal nerves, olfactory nerves and optic nerves emerge from cerebrum or forebrain, and the remaining ten pairs arise from the brainstem, which is the lower part of the brain. Cranial nerves are considered components of the peripheral nervous system. However, on structural level, olfactory, optic, and terminal nerves are more accurately considered part of the central nervous system. Twelve cranial nerves are shown in the figure below, followed by brief descriptions. Cranial nerves: locations of cranial nerves within the brain. Olfactory nerve: this is instrumental for sense of smell, it is one of few nerves that are capable of regeneration. Optic nerve: this nerve carries visual information from the retina of the eye to the brain. Oculomotor nerve: this controls most of eye movements, constriction of pupil, and maintains open eyelid.S Trochlear nerve: motor nerve that innervates superior oblique muscle of the eye, which controls rotational movement. Trigeminal nerve: this is responsible for sensation and motor functions in the face and mouth. Abducens nerve: motor nerve that innervates the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, which controls lateral movement. Facial nerve: this controls muscles of facial expression, and functions in conveyance of taste sensations from anterior two - thirds of the tongue and oral cavity. Vestibulocochlear nerve: this is responsible for transmitting sound and equilibrium information from the inner ear to the brain. Glossopharyngeal nerve: this nerve receives sensory information from tonsils, pharynx, middle ear, and rest of the tongue. Vagus nerve: this is responsible for many tasks, including heart rate, gastrointestinal peristalsis, sweating, and muscle movements in the mouth, including speech and keeping the larynx open for breathing. Spinal accessory: this nerve controls specific muscles of the shoulder and neck. Hypoglossal nerve: this nerve controls tongue movements of speech, food manipulation, and swallowing. There are many mnemonic devices to remember cranial nerves. One that may be helpful is: Old Opie Occasionally tries Trigonometry and Feels Very Gloomy, Vague and Hypoactive.


Optic nerve (CN II or 2)

Optic nerves receive visual information from photoreceptors in the retina and transmit it to the brain. Optic nerve is also know as cranial nerve II. It transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. Each human optic nerve contains between 770 000 and 1. 7 million nerve fibers. Eyes blind spot is a result of the absence of photoreceptors in the area of the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye. Optic nerve is the second of twelve pairs of cranial nerves. It is considered by physiologists to be part of the central nervous system, as it is derived from outpouching of diencephalon during embryonic development. As a consequence, fibers are covered with myelin produced by oligodendrocytes, rather than Schwann cells that are found in the peripheral nervous system. Optic nerve is ensheathed in all three meningeal layers rather than epineurium, perineurium, and endoneurium found in peripheral nerves. Fiber tracks of the mammalian central nervous system are incapable of regeneration. As a consequence, optic nerve damage produces irreversible blindness. Optic nerves leave orbit, which is also know as the eye socket, via the optic canal, running posteromedially toward optic chiasm, where there is partial decussation of fibers from nasal visual fields of both eyes. Most of axons of the optic nerve terminate in the lateral geniculate nucleus, while other axons terminate in the pretectal nucleus and are involved in reflexive eye movements. The optic nerve transmits all visual information including brightness perception, color perception, and contrast. It also conducts visual impulses that are responsible for two important neurological reflexes: light reflex and accommodation reflex. Light reflex refers to constriction of both pupils that occurs when light is shine into either eye; accommodation reflex refers to swelling of the lens of eye that occurs when one looks at a near object, as in reading.


Oculomotor nerve (CN III or 3)

On emerging from the brain, oculomotor nerve is invested with sheath of pia mater and enclose in prolongation from arachnoid mater. It passes between superior cerebellar and posterior cerebral arteries, and then pierces dura mater anterior and lateral to posterior clinoid process, passing between free and attached borders of tentorium cerebelli. It then runs along the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus, above other orbital nerves, receiving in its course one or two filaments from the cavernous plexus of the sympathetic nervous system, and communicating branch from ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve. It is then divided into two branches that enter orbit through superior orbital fissure, between two heads of the lateral rectus. Here nerve is located below the trochlear nerve and frontal and lacrimal branches of the ophthalmic nerve, while the nasociliary nerve is located between its two rami.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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