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The Central Nervous System Made Up

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and controls voluntary actions, speech, senses, think, and memory. The surface of the cerebral cortex has grooves or infoldings, largest of which are term fissures. Some fissures separate lobes. Convolutions of the cortex give it a wormy appearance. Each convolution is delimit by two sulci and is also called gyrus. Cerebrum is divided into two halves, known as right and leave hemispheres. A mass of fibers called corpus callosum link hemispheres. The right hemisphere controls voluntary limb movements on the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls voluntary limb movements on the right side of the body. Almost every person has one dominant hemisphere. Each hemisphere is divided into four lobes, or areas, which are interconnect. Frontal lobes are located in front of the brain and are responsible for voluntary movement and, via their connections with other lobes, participate in execution of sequential tasks; speech output; organizational skills; and certain aspects of behavior, mood, and memory. Parietal lobes are located behind frontal lobes and in front of occipital lobes. They process sensory information such as temperature, pain, taste, and touch. In addition, processing includes information about numbers, attentiveness to the position of one's body parts, space around one's body, and one's relationship to this space. Temporal lobes are located on each side of the brain. They process memory and auditory information and speech and language functions. Occipital lobes are located at the back of the brain. They receive and process visual information. The cortex, also called gray matter, is the external layer of the brain and predominantly contains neuronal bodies. Gray matter participates actively in the storage and processing of information. An isolated clump of nerve cell bodies in gray matter is term nucleus. Cells in gray matter extend their projections, called axons, to other areas of the brain. Fibers that leave the cortex to conduct impulses toward other areas are term efferent fibers, and fibers that approach the cortex from other areas of the nervous system are term afferent. Fibers that go from the motor cortex to the brainstem or spinal cord receive names that generally reflect connections. Axons are surrounded in their course by gray matter by myelin, which has a glistening whitish appearance and thus gives rise to the term white matter. Cortical areas receive their names according to their general function or lobe name. If in charge of motor function, area is called the motor cortex. If in charge of sensory function, area is called the sensory or somesthetic cortex. The Calcarine or visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe and receives visual input. The Auditory cortex, localized in the temporal lobe, processes sounds or verbal input.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Grey and white matter

The highest concentration of neuronal cells is in the cerebellum, which has more than the rest of the brain combine. Gyri and sulci, or ridges and grooves located in the brain, are present to increase surface area. This increased surface area is crucial for effective functioning as more neurons can be present in contrast to brain with a flat surface. Besides this group of neuronal cells, axons of grey Matter are not heavily myelinated, unlike White Matter, which contains high concentration of myelin. Grey Matter contains the majority of neuron somas, making it appear tan with circulation but grey when prepared for examination outside of the body. These somas are circular structures that house nucleus of cells. Grey Matter also extends from the brain into the spinal cord. Grey Matter creates a hornlike structure throughout the inside of the spinal cord while White Matter makes up surrounding sections of the spinal cord. Grey Matter do extend to the spinal cord to make signaling more effective. Unlike the structure of the spinal cord, grey matter in the brain is present in the outermost layer. The Grey matter surrounding cerebrum is know as the cortex of the brain. There are two major cortexes in the brain, cerebral cortex and the cerebellar cortex. There are also areas of grey matter that are in the inner sections of the brain; however, these areas are not known as cortexes but instead are called nucleus or nuclei. Grey Matter has a large number of neurons present, which allow it to process information and release new information through axon signaling found in White Matter. Grey matter throughout the central nervous system allows individuals to control movement, memory, and emotions. Different areas of the brain are responsible for various functions, and grey matter plays a significant role in all aspects of human life. Similarly to the brain, grey matter also split into specific sections in the spinal cord. Three sections are the anterior grey column, posterior grey column, and lateral grey column.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diagnosing nervous system conditions

Table

NeurologyNeurological surgeryRehabilitation for neurological disorders
The branch of medicine that manages nervous system disorders is called neurology . The medical doctors who treat nervous system disorders are called neurologists .The branch of medicine that provides surgical intervention for nervous system disorders is called neurosurgery or neurological surgery . Surgeons who operate as a treatment team for nervous system disorders are called neurological surgeons or neurosurgeons .The branch of medicine that provides rehabilitative care for patients with nervous system disorders is called physical medicine and rehabilitation . Doctors who work with patients in the rehabilitation process are called physiatrists .

The following are the most common symptoms of nervous system Disorders. However, each child may experience symptoms differently and different disorders will cause different symptoms to occur. Symptoms may include: delays in developmental milestones Increase or Lack of growth in head size Changes in activity, reflexes, or movements Lack of coordination Changes in level of consciousness or mood Muscle rigidity, tremors, or seizures Older children may also report persistent or severe headaches, loss of feeling or tingling, or visual Changes symptoms of nervous system disorder may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your child's physician for diagnosis.


Overview of Nervous System Disorders

Evaluating and diagnosing nervous system problems can be complex. Many of the same symptoms occur in different ways among different disorders. And, many disorders don't have clear causes, markers, or tests. CT scan. This imaging test uses X-rays and computer technology to make horizontal, or axial, images of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the brain, bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays. This test can be done quickly and most children can undergo CT scan without sedation. Electroencephalogram. This test records the brain's continuous, electrical activity through electrodes attached to the scalp. MRI. This test used a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and computer to make detailed images of organs and structures within the body. This study can't be done if your child has any metal in their body. This includes braces, or certain dental appliances. Sometimes it is necessary to remove braces or dental devices in preparation for MRI. Talk to your child's healthcare provider to determine if this is necessary. MRI studies take longer than CT, and machines make a lot of noise. Young children may require sedation to remain still throughout the MRI exam. Electrodiagnostic tests. These include electromyography and nerve conduction velocity. These studies evaluate and diagnose disorders of nerves, muscles and motor neurons. Electrodes are inserted into muscle, or placed on skin overlying nerve, muscle, or muscle group, and electrical activity and muscle response are record. Positron emission tomography scan. This computer-base imaging test provides a picture of the brain's activity rather than its structure by measuring levels of injected substance with tracer molecule, most often glucose. Arteriogram. This test provides images of arteries and veins going to and through the brain. CT angiography, newer and less invasive technique, is sometimes used Cerebral spinal fluid analysis. This test takes sample of cerebrospinal fluid from the spinal cord for examination. Evoked potentials. This test records the brain's electrical response to visual, auditory, and sensory stimuli. Myelogram. Test that uses dye injected into the spinal canal to make structure clearly visible on X-rays. Though once common, this is rarely used. Ultrasound. This test used high-frequency sound waves and a computer to create images of blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Ultrasounds are used to view internal organs as they function, and to assess blood flow through various vessels. Ultrasound of the brain can only be done in the first few months of life while infant's fontanels, or soft spots, are open. Neurosonography. This test used ultra high-frequency sound wave to evaluate structures of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and other structures.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diseases of the nervous system

Table

NeurologyNeurological surgeryRehabilitation for neurological disorders
The branch of medicine that manages nervous system disorders is called neurology . The medical doctors who treat nervous system disorders are called neurologists .The branch of medicine that provides surgical intervention for nervous system disorders is called neurosurgery or neurological surgery . Surgeons who operate as a treatment team for nervous system disorders are called neurological surgeons or neurosurgeons .The branch of medicine that provides rehabilitative care for patients with nervous system disorders is called physical medicine and rehabilitation . Doctors who work with patients in the rehabilitation process are called physiatrists .

Of all diseases of the nervous system, most common difficulty that people have is pain, and much of that is nerve-relate, according to Dr. Shai Gozani, founder and CEO of NeuroMetrix, medical device company. There are 100 million people who live with chronic pain. According to Mayo Clinic, patients with Nerve Disorders experience Functional difficulties, which result in conditions such as: Epilepsy, in which abnormal electrical discharges from brain cells cause Seizures, Parkinson's disease, which is a progressive Nerve disease that affects Movement Multiple sclerosis, in which protective lining of nerves is attacked by the body's immune system Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also know as Lou Gehrig's disease, is motor neuron disease which weaken muscles and progressively hampers Physical function Huntington's disease, which is inherit condition that cause Nerve cells in Brain to degenerate Alzheimer's disease, which cover wide range of Disorders that impact Mental functions, particularly Memory. Mayo Clinic also notes that the nervous system can also be affected by Vascular Disorders such as: Stroke, which occur when there is bleeding in the brain or blow flow to the brain is obstruct; Transient ischemic attack, which are mini-type strokes that last a shorter period of time but mimic Stroke symptoms; and Subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is specifically bleeding in space between your Brain and surrounding membrane that can be result of trauma or rupturing of weak Blood vessel; Infections such as meningitis, encephalitis, polio, and epidural abscess can also affect nervous system, NIH note. Treatments vary from anti-inflammatory medications and pain medications such as opiates, to implanted nerve stimulators and wearable devices, Gozani say. Many people also turn to herbal and holistic methods to reduce pain, such as acupuncture.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Study of the nervous system

Table

NeurologyNeurological surgeryRehabilitation for neurological disorders
The branch of medicine that manages nervous system disorders is called neurology . The medical doctors who treat nervous system disorders are called neurologists .The branch of medicine that provides surgical intervention for nervous system disorders is called neurosurgery or neurological surgery . Surgeons who operate as a treatment team for nervous system disorders are called neurological surgeons or neurosurgeons .The branch of medicine that provides rehabilitative care for patients with nervous system disorders is called physical medicine and rehabilitation . Doctors who work with patients in the rehabilitation process are called physiatrists .

The Mammalian nervous system is a complex biological organ, which enables many animals, including humans, to function in a coordinated fashion. The original design of this system is to preserve many animals through evolution; thus, adaptive physiological and behavioral functions are similar across many animal species. Comparative studies of physiological functioning in nervous systems of different animals lend insights to their behavior and their mental processing and makes it easier for us to understand the human brain and behavior. In addition, studying development of the nervous system in growing humans provides a wealth of information about changes in its form and behaviors that result from this change. The nervous system is divided into central and peripheral nervous systems, and the two heavily interact with one another. The Peripheral nervous system controls volitional and nonvolitional behaviors using cranial and spinal nerves. The central nervous system is divided into forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain, and each division performs a variety of tasks; for example, cerebral cortex in the forebrain houses sensory, motor, and associative areas that gather sensory information, process information for perception and memory, and produce responses based on incoming and inherent information. To study the nervous system, number of methods have evolved over time; These methods include examining brain lesions, microscopy, electrophysiology, electroencephalography, and many scanning technologies.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The Spinal Cord

Table

NeurologyNeurological surgeryRehabilitation for neurological disorders
The branch of medicine that manages nervous system disorders is called neurology . The medical doctors who treat nervous system disorders are called neurologists .The branch of medicine that provides surgical intervention for nervous system disorders is called neurosurgery or neurological surgery . Surgeons who operate as a treatment team for nervous system disorders are called neurological surgeons or neurosurgeons .The branch of medicine that provides rehabilitative care for patients with nervous system disorders is called physical medicine and rehabilitation . Doctors who work with patients in the rehabilitation process are called physiatrists .

A common set of biological events take place following spinal cord injury: cells from the immune system migrate to the injury site, causing additional damage to some Neurons and death to others that survive initial trauma. The Death of oligodendrocytes causes axons to lose their myelination, which greatly impairs conduction of action potential, messages, or renders remaining connections useless. The Neuronal information highway is further disrupted because many axons are sever, cutting off lines of communication between the brain and muscles and between the body's sensory systems and the brain. Within several weeks of initial injury, area of tissue damage has been cleared away by microglia, and fluid-fill cavity surrounded by glial scar is left behind. Molecules that inhibit regrowth of severed axons are now expressed at this site. Cavitation is called syrinx, which acts as a barrier to reconnection of two sides of the damaged spinal cord. Although spinal cord injury causes complex damage, surprising amount of basic circuitry to control movement and process information can remain intact. This is because the spinal cord is arranged into layers of circuitry. Many of the connections and neuronal cell bodies forming this circuitry above and below the site of injury survive trauma. An important question for research scientists is, how much do these surviving Neurons know? Can they regenerate and make new, correct connections?

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The Retina

In vertebrate embryonic development, retina and optic nerve originate as outgrowths of the developing brain. Hence, retina is part of the central nervous system. It is the only part of the CNS that can be image directly. The vertebrate retina contains photoreceptor cells that respond to light; resulting neural signals then undergo complex processing by other neurons of the retina. Retinal output takes the form of action potential in retinal ganglion cells whose axons form optic nerve. Several important features of visual perception can be traced to retinal encoding and processing of light. The unique structure of blood vessels in the retina has been used for biometric identification.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Central Nervous System Structure

The Central Nervous System is part of the Nervous System that includes the brain and spinal cord. Figure: shows the central Nervous System as one of two main divisions of the total Nervous System. The other main division is Peripheral Nervous System. CNS and PNS work together to control virtually all body functions. You can read much more about PNS in the concept Peripheral Nervous System. Delicate Nervous tissues of the central Nervous System are protected by major physical and chemical barriers. Physically, brain and spinal cord are surrounded by tough meninges, three-layer protective sheath that also contains cushioning cerebrospinal fluid. Bones of the skull and spinal vertebrae also contribute to physically protecting the brain and spinal cord. Chemically, brain and spinal cord are isolated from circulation and most toxins or pathogens in blood by the blood-brain barrier. The Blood-brain barrier is a highly selective membrane form of endothelial cells that separates circulating blood from extracellular fluid in CNS. The barriers allow water, certain gases, glucose, and some other molecules needed by the brain and spinal cord to cross from blood into CNS while keeping out potentially harmful substances. These physical and chemical barriers make CNS less susceptible to injury. However, damage to CNS is likely to have more serious consequences.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Introduction to the Nervous System

The primary function of the nervous system is to coordinate and control various body functions. The Nervous system has three overlapping functions based on sensory input, integration, and motor output. The Nervous system is a highly integrated system. Sensory input comes from many sensory receptors that monitor changes occurring both inside and outside the body. The total sum of information gathered by these receptors is called sensory input. The nervous system processes and interprets sensory input and decides what actions should be take. Nervous system activate effector organs such as muscles and glands to cause response call motor output. At a more integrative level, primary function of the nervous system is to control and communicate information throughout the body. It does this by extracting information from the environment using sensory receptors. This sensory input is sent to the central nervous system, which determines the appropriate response. Once response is activate, nervous system sends signals via motor output to muscles or glands to initiate response. In humans, sophistication of the nervous system allows for language, abstract representation of concepts, transmission of culture, and many other features of society that would not otherwise exist.


Organization of the Nervous System

As you might predict, human nervous system is very complex. It has multiple divisions, beginning with its two main parts, Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System, as shown in Figure: CNS includes brain and spinal cord, and PNS consists mainly of nerves, which are bundles of axons from neurons. Nerves of PNS connect CNS to the rest of the body. You can learn much more about CNS by reading the concept Central Nervous System. PNS is divided into two major parts, called autonomic and somatic Nervous systems. Somatic Nervous System control activities that are under voluntary control, such as turning the steering wheel. The Autonomic Nervous System controls activities that are not under voluntary control, such as digesting meal. The Autonomic Nervous System has three divisions: sympathetic division, which controls fight-or-flight response during emergencies; parasympathetic division, which controls routine housekeeping functions of the body at other times; and enteric division, which provides local control of the digestive system. You can learn more about PNS and its subdivisions by reading the concept Peripheral Nervous System.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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