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The Cerebrum

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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Cerebrum, largest and uppermost portion of the brain. The cerebrum consists of cerebral hemispheres and accounts for two - thirds of the total weight of the brain. One hemisphere, usually left, is functionally dominant, controlling language and speech. Other hemisphere interprets visual and spatial information. Cerebral hemispheres consist of an inner core of myelinated nerve fibres, white matter, and an outer cortex of gray matter. The cerebral cortex is responsible for integrating sensory impulses, directing motor activity, and controlling higher intellectual functions. The human cortex is several centimetres thick and has a surface area of about 2 000 square cm, largely because of an elaborate series of convolutions; extensive development of this cortex in humans is thought to distinguish the human brain from those of other animals. Nerve fibres in white matter primarily connect functional areas of the cerebral cortex. The gray matter of the cerebral cortex is usually divided into four lobes, roughly defined by major surface folds. The frontal lobe contains a control centre for motor activity and speech, parietal for somatic senses, temporal for auditory reception and memory, and occipital for visual reception. Sometimes the limbic lobe, involved with smell, taste, and emotions, is considered to be the fifth lobe. Numerous deep grooves in the cerebral cortex, called cerebral fissures, originate in extensive folding of the brain surface. Main cerebral fissures are lateral fissure, or fissure of Sylvius, between frontal and temporal lobes; central fissure, or fissure of Rolando, between frontal and parietal lobes, which separate chief motor and sensory regions of the brain; calcarine fissure on the occipital lobe, which contains the visual cortex; parieto - occipital fissure, which separates parietal and occipital lobes; transverse fissure, which divide cerebrum from cerebellum; and longitudinal fissure, which divide cerebrum into two hemispheres. A thick band of white matter that connects two hemispheres, called corpus callosum, allows integration of sensory input and functional responses from both sides of the body. Other cerebral structures include the hypothalamus, which controls metabolism and maintains homeostasis, and the thalamus, principal sensory relay centre. These structures surround spaces filled with cerebrospinal fluid, which helps to supply brain cells with nutrients and provide the brain with shock - absorbing mechanical support.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

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Lobes of the Cerebrum

Continuing down the list, we have another lobe of cerebrum called temporal lobe. It is responsible for memory, language and hearing. It sits underneath previous two lobes, from which it is separated by lateral sulcus. The temporal lobe consists of superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri that are delimit by superior and inferior sulci. It is supplied by middle and posterior cerebral arteries. There are quite a lot of head spinning terms regarding cerebrum, right? Lets simplify matter slightly by showing you a diagram of the brain and helping you get your bearings:

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Overview of the Cerebrum

Cerebrum is the largest component of the brain. It is divided into right and left hemispheres. Corpus callosum is a collection of white matter fibers that join these hemispheres. Each of the cerebral hemispheres is further divided into 4 lobes: frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, and occipital lobe. Medial temporal lobe structures are considered by some to be part of the so - called limbic lobe. Briefly, frontal lobe is distinguished from the parietal lobe posteriorly by central sulcus. The frontal lobe and parietal lobes are divided inferiorly from the temporal lobe by lateral sulcus. The parietal lobe is distinguished from the occipital lobe by parieto - occipital sulcus on the medial surface. Cerebrum is further divided into telencephalon and diencephalon. Telencephalon consists of the cortex, subcortical fibers, and basal nuclei. Diencephalon mainly consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. The Telencephalon of cerebrum is disproportionately well - developed in humans as compared with other mammals. The outermost layer of the cerebrum is the cortex, which has a slightly gray appearance - hence the term gray matter. The cortex has a folded structure; each fold is term gyrus, while each groove between folds is termed sulcus. Cortical anatomy is discussed in greater detail below. Below the cortex are axons, which are long fibers that emanate from and connect neurons. Axons are insulated by myelin, which increases the speed of conduction. Myelin is what gives white appearance to these fibers of the brain - hence the term white matter. The Limbic system is a grouping of cortical and subcortical structures involved in memory formation and emotional responses. The limbic system allows for complex interactions between the cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and brainstem. The limbic system is not defined by strict anatomic boundaries but incorporates several important structures. Limbic structures conventionally include the amygdala, hippocampus, fornix, mammillary bodies, cingulate gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus. Functional connections within the limbic system are best summarized by Papez circuit. From the hippocampus, signals are relayed via fornix to mammillary bodies and via mammillothalamic tract to the anterior nucleus of the thalamus. Thalamocingulate radiation then projects to cingulate gyrus and back to the hippocampus to complete the circuit. The Hippocampus serves as the primary output structure of the limbic system. Unlike the 6 - layer neocortex, hippocampus only has 3 layers and is termed archicortex. The hippocampus is felt to be a structure that is crucial to the formation of memory - more specifically, type of memory called declarative or explicit memory. Declarative memory is essentially the ability to recall life events of past, such as what meal was ate for breakfast or where the car is park. Over time, however, certain declarative memories from the distant past can be independently recalled without hippocampal structures. The Hippocampus likely allows long - term memory encoding in the cortex and allows short - term memory retrieval.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

White Matter of the Cerebrum

There are three different kinds of tracts that connect one part of the brain to another within White matter: projection tracts extend vertically between higher and lower brain areas and spinal cord centers, and carry information between the cerebrum and the rest of the body. Other projection tracts carry signals upward to the cerebral cortex. Superior to the brainstem, such tracts form a broad, dense sheet called internal capsule between the thalamus and basal nuclei, then radiate in diverging, fanlike array to specific areas of the cortex. Commissural tracts cross from one cerebral hemisphere to other through bridges called commissures. The great majority of commissural tracts pass through the large corpus callosum. Few tracts pass through much smaller anterior and posterior commissures. Commissural tracts enable the left and right sides of the cerebrum to communicate with each other. Association tracts connect different regions within the same hemisphere of the brain. Long association fibers connect different lobes of the hemisphere to each other, whereas short association fibers connect different gyri within a single lobe. Among their roles, association tracts link perceptual and memory centers of the brain.

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Basal Ganglia

Table

Input NucleiIntrinsic NucleiOutput Nuclei
Caudate nucleus and putamen (neostriatum)External globus pallidus Subthalamic nucleus Pars compacta of the substantia nigraInternal globus pallidus Pars reticulata of the substantia nigra

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Table2

Input NucleiIntrinsic NucleiOutput Nuclei
Caudate nucleus and putamen (neostriatum)External globus pallidus Subthalamic nucleus Pars compacta of the substantia nigraInternal globus pallidus Pars reticulata of the substantia nigra

Key facts about the basal ganglia

DefinitionA group of subcortical nuclei that fine-tune the voluntary motor activity
PartsStriatum Dorsal striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) Ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle) Globus pallidus Subthalamic nucleus Substantia nigra
FunctionPlanning and modulation of movement, memory, eye movements, reward processing, motivation
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Function

Cerebrum directs conscious or volitional motor functions of the body. These functions originate within the primary motor cortex and other frontal lobe motor areas where actions are plan. Upper motor neurons in the primary motor cortex send their axons to the brainstem and spinal cord to synapse with lower motor neurons, which innervate muscles. Damage to motor areas of the cortex can lead to certain types of motor neuron disease. This kind of damage results in loss of muscular power and precision rather than total paralysis. The olfactory sensory system is unique in that neurons in the olfactory bulb send their axons directly to the olfactory cortex, rather than to thalamus first. Damage to olfactory bulb results in loss of sense of smell. The olfactory bulb also receives top - down information from such brain areas as the amygdala, neocortex, hippocampus, locus coeruleus, and substantia nigra. Its potential functions can be placed into four non - exclusive categories: discriminating among odors, enhancing sensitivity of odor detection, filtering out background odors, and permitting higher brain areas involved in arousal and attention to modify detection or discrimination of odors. Speech and language are mainly attributed to parts of the cerebral cortex. Motor portions of language are attributed to Brocas area within the frontal lobe. Speech comprehension is attributed to the Wernickes area, at the temporal - parietal lobe junction. Damage to Brocas area results in expressive aphasia while damage to Wernickes area results in receptive aphasia.

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Related medical conditions

The brain is hugely complex, but is, at basic level, divided into cerebrum, brainstem, and cerebellum. Cerebrum participates in higher levels of thinking and action. Four lobes or sections make up cerebrum, and each performs a different job. The frontal lobe sits at the front and top of the brain. It is responsible for the highest levels of human thinking and behavior, such as planning, judgment, decision making, impulse control, and attention. The parietal lobe lies behind the frontal lobe. This lobe takes in sensory information and helps individuals understand their position in their environment. The temporal lobe is at the lower front of the brain. This lobe has strong links with visual memory, language, and emotion. Finally, occipital lobe is located at the back of the brain. The occipital lobe processes visual input from the eyes. The cerebellum and brainstem accompany the cerebrum in promoting full physical and mental function. The brainstem manages vital automatic functions, such as breathing, circulation, sleeping, digestion, and swallowing. These are involuntary processes controlled by the autonomic nervous system.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Summary

Cerebrum is a major structure in the brain, composed of the right and left hemisphere. Each hemisphere works together to control both sides of the body. Within hemispheres are regions we call lobes. Four lobes include occipital, temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes. Each lobe is responsible for a specific task. The frontal lobe functions in solving problems, controlling body movements, sentence formation, and personality traits. Occipital lobe functions in processing visual images. Temporal lobe Functions in hearing, memory formation, and learning new language. Finally, parietal lobe allows you to experience the sense of touch or feeling. Information is constantly coming into cerebrum from many directions. Cerebrum functions by taking information, sending it to proper place, and then acting on current knowledge and / or past experiences.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Key Terms

Tau protein: type of protein abundantly found in neurons. When this protein is not adequately clear from the brain, it can form tangles that are key pathology of several neurodegenerative disorders including frontotemporal degeneration, CTE, and Alzheimers disease. Telomere: protective cap found at the end of the chromosome. Research studies suggest these caps may be shortened in neurodegenerative diseases. Temporal lobes: parts of cerebrum that are located on either side of the head, roughly beneath temples in humans. These areas involve hearing, language, memory storage, and emotion. Thalamus: Brain structure located at the top of the brain stem, thalamus acts as a two - way relay station, sorting, processing, and directing signals from spinal cord and midbrain structures to cerebrum, and from cerebrum down. Tourettes syndrome: neurological disorder, beginning in childhood, characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements or vocalizations, called tics. Transcranial electrical stimulation: non - invasive procedure that applies electrical stimulation to scalp to increase or decrease neural signaling. Two main types are direct current stimulation and alternating current stimulation. They are used for therapeutic purposes as well as to study cognitive processing. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: non - invasive procedure that uses energy from a strong magnet to stimulate changes in neural processing from above the scalp. It is used as a treatment for depression as well as a research method to investigate cognitive processes. Traumatic Brain injury: injury to the brain acquired when the head is violently shook, struck, or pierced by an object. Nearby blasts or explosion,s as may occur in combat, emit shock waves that can also cause TBI. Moderate to severe TBI causes permanent impairments in brain function. Symptoms of mild TBI may include headache, dizziness, attention problems, or issues with behavior and mood. Two - photon microscopy: is an advanced microscopy technique that uses fluorescent markers to look at living tissue approximately one millimeter below the skin surface.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The Left and Right Hemispheres

Table

Left HemisphereRight Hemisphere
Analytical skills/Problem solvingCreativity
LogicImagination
ReasoningSpatiotemporal awareness
LanguageReflective, conscious thought
Calculations; MathematicsMusic interpretation
Visual imagery
Muscles of the right side of the bodyMuscles of the left side of the body

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

2.1.1 Cerebrum

Key facts about the cerebrum (forebrain)

DefinitionThe largest and principal part of the human brain located in the anterior part of the skull.
PartsConsists of two hemispheres (left and right), each divided into five lobes ; frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, insular. Structurally composed of an outer layer of gray matter ( cerebral cortex ) and centrally located white matter .
FunctionIntegrates and consolidates neural information and initiates and coordinates voluntary activity.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

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