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Scientists around the world are working on potential treatments and vaccines for the new Coronavirus Disease know as COVID - 19. Several companies are working on antiviral drugs, some of which are already in use against other illnesses, to treat people WHO already have COVID - 19. Other companies are working on vaccines that could be used as preventive measures against disease. With confirmed COVID - 19 cases worldwide surpassing 9 million and continuing to grow, scientists are pushing forward with efforts to develop vaccines and treatments to slow pandemic and lessen disease damage. Some of the earliest treatments will likely be drugs that are already approved for other conditions, or have been tested on other viruses. People are looking into whether existing antivirals might work or whether new drugs could be developed to try to tackle viruses, say Dr. Bruce Y. Lee, Professor at CUNY Graduate School of Public Health & Health Policy. As of May 8, two medications had received emergency use authorization from the Food and Drug Administration: antiviral remdesivir and a drug used to sedate people on ventilator. FDA issued EUA in March for antimalaria drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, but later revoked it after studies showed that theyre unlikely to be effective in treating COVID - 19. Eua allows doctors to use these drugs to treat people with COVID - 19 even before medications have go through the formal FDA approval process. These drugs are still being tested in clinical trials to see whether theyre effective against COVID - 19. This step is needed to make sure medications are safe for this particular use and what the proper dosage should be. It could be months before treatments are available that are known to work against COVID - 19. It could be even longer for vaccine. But there are still other tools we can use to reduce damage done by the new Coronavirus, also know as SARS - CoV - 2. Even though technological advances allow the US to do certain things more quickly, Lee told Healthline, we still have to rely on social distancing, contact tracing, self - isolation, and other measures.
Health officials and scientists across the world are racing to develop vaccines and discover effective treatments against coronavirus, which has infected more than 4. 2 million people worldwide in as little as four months, according to data compiled by Johns Hopkins University. There are no proven, knockout treatments and US health officials say the vaccine could take at least year to 18 months. On May 1, Food and Drug Administration granted Emergency Use Authorization for Gilead Sciences antiviral Drug Remdesivir. This is after a government - run clinical trial found COVID - 19 patients who take Remdesivir usually recover after 11 days. That is four days faster than those who didn't take drugs. EUA means doctors in the US will be allowed to use Remdesivir on patients hospitalized with COVID - 19 even though it has not been formally approved by the agency. Even if the drug wins final approval, Infectious Disease specialists and scientists say researchers will need an arsenal of medications to fight this respiratory virus, which can also attack cardiovascular, nervous, digestive and other major systems of the body. Below is a list of leading vaccines and drugs in development to battle COVID - 19.
These drugs trigger the immune system to attack viruses. Like antibodies made by bodys immune system, These laboratory - made molecules target specific invader,s such as SARS - CoV - 2. Small biotech company Sorrento Therapeutics announced it has an antibody drug that has been effective in early testing in blocking SARS - CoV - 2. Companies say the drug could potentially be used to treat people with COVID - 19 as well as help prevent infection. Abcellera has isolated 500 unique antibodies from person WHO recovered from COVID - 19 and is set to start testing them. Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc. Is testing a two - antibody combination in four groups: people hospitalized with COVID - 19; people with symptoms of disease but not hospitalize; healthy people at high risk of getting sick with COVID - 19; and healthy people WHO have had close contact with someone with COVID - 19. Vir Biotechnology has isolated antibodies from people WHO survived SARS, another disease caused by coronavirus. The company is working with Chinese firm WuXi Biologics to test them as treatment for COVID - 19.
Hoping to stem the toll of States surging coronavirus outbreak, New York Health officials plan to begin collecting plasma from people WHO have recovered and injecting antibody - rich fluid into patients still fighting the virus. Gov. Andrew Cuomo announced the plans during a news briefing Monday. The treatment, know as convalescent plasma, dates back centuries and was used during the flu epidemic of 1918 in an era before modern vaccines and antiviral drugs. Some experts say treatment, although somewhat primitive, might be the best hope for combating coronavirus until more sophisticated therapies can be develop, which could take several months. There have been tests that show when a person is injected with antibodies, that then stimulate and promote their immune system against that disease, Cuomo say. It's only a trial. It's trial for people WHO are in serious condition, but the New York State Department of Health has been working on this with some of New York's best health care agencies, and we think it shows promise, and we re going to be starting that this week. New York has seen a dramatic rise in coronavirus cases in recent days, with about 20 000 confirmed cases and more than 150 deaths as of Monday afternoon, more than in any other state. State Health officials say they expect to get approval from the Food and Drug Administration to begin the plasma trial in coming days. A Spokesman for the FDA confirmed to NBC News that the agency is working expeditiously to facilitate development and availability of convalescent plasma. And at a White House briefing last week, FDA Commissioner Stephen Hahn singled out treatment as a promising option to fight disease in the near term. That's great news, says Dr. Arturo Casadevall, infectious Disease expert at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, WHO has been calling for widespread use of convalescent plasma. When we started talking about this a few weeks ago, it was just an idea, and now it seems it's going to become reality. The method essentially harvesting virus - fighting antibodies from the blood of previously infected patients dates back more than a century, but it has not been used widely in the United States in decades. Infusions of convalescent plasma were associated with milder symptoms and shorter hospital stays for some patients during the 2002 SARS outbreak, and initial reports from China suggest convalescent plasma might also be effective in dulling the effects of COVID - 19, disease caused by coronavirus. Treatment is not without risks. There is danger in giving patients the wrong type of blood or inadvertently transmitting other pathogens in transfusion, but safety advancements over the past two decades have made adverse outcomes rare. In New York, health officials say they plan to begin recruiting patients WHO have fully recovered from COVID - 19 in coming days.
Vaccine are designed to protect people before theyre exposed to viruses. In this case, new coronavirus SARS - CoV - 2. Vaccines basically train the immune system to recognize and attack virus when it encounters it. Vaccines protect both the person who are vaccinated and the community. Viruses ca infect people who are vaccinate, which means vaccinated people ca pass the virus to others. This is known as herd immunity. Many groups are working on potential COVID - 19 Vaccines, with several backed by the nonprofit Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations. There are more than 100 projects around World Center on development of the COVID - 19 vaccine. As of May 11, eight candidate vaccines were being tested in clinical trials in people. Russia has been moving quickly with its vaccine research. In early September, officials there said all 76 participants in clinical trial developed antibodies to COVID - 19 after being immunize. Experts say the likely timeline for distribution of vaccine is summer or fall 2021. The World Health Organization said in early September that the vaccine would not be available until mid - 2021. Moderna. In March, company began testing its messenger RNA vaccine in a Phase I clinical trial in Seattle, Washington. In mid - May, company announced the vaccine had produced antibodies in all 45 trial participants in this initial clinical phase. The study included 45 healthy volunteers, aged 18 to 55, who are getting two shots 28 days apart. Companies have developed other mRNA vaccines before. Those earlier studies show that their platform is safe, which allows the company to skip certain animal testing for this specific vaccine. In early May, company received permission from FDA to start Phase II study of its vaccine. Fda also agreed to fast - track regulatory review of this vaccine if it succeeds in Phase III clinical trial. In late July, Moderna finished Phase II trials and began Phase III clinical trials of their vaccine. In late August, company officials said their vaccine showed promising immune response in 10 people between the ages of 56 and 70 as well as 10 people over the age of 70. Inovio. When COVID - 19 appeared in December, company had already been working on a DNA vaccine for MERS. This allows companies to quickly develop potential COVID - 19 vaccine. Company officials announced at the end of April that it had enrol 40 healthy volunteers in its Phase I clinical trial. It is preparing to start Phase II / III clinical trial this summer. University of Oxford in England. Clinical trial with more than 500 participants begins in late April. Oxford officials say the potential vaccine has an 80 percent chance of success and could be available as early as September. Vaccine uses modified virus to trigger the immune system. The university has partnered with the pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca. Company report in mid - May vaccine was effective against COVID - 19 after it was given to six rhesus macaque monkeys.
Today, US Food and Drug Administration issued emergency use authorization for investigational Convalescent Plasma for treatment of COVID - 19 in Hospitalized Patients as part of the agency's ongoing efforts to fight COVID - 19. Base on scientific evidence available, FDA conclude, as outlined in its decision memorandum, this product may be effective in treating COVID - 19 and that known and potential benefits of the product outweigh known and potential risks of the product. Today's action follows FDA's extensive review of Science and data generated over the past several months stemming from efforts to facilitate emergency Access to Convalescent Plasma for Patients as Clinical trials to definitively demonstrate safety and efficacy remain ongoing. Eua authorizes distribution of COVID - 19 Convalescent Plasma in the US and its Administration by Health care providers, as appropriate, to treat suspected or laboratory - confirm COVID - 19 in Hospitalized Patients with COVID - 19. Alex Azar, Health and Human Services Secretary: FDAs emergency authorization for Convalescent Plasma is a milestone achievement in President Trumps efforts to save lives from COVID - 19, say Secretary Azar. The Trump Administration recognized the potential of Convalescent Plasma early on. Months ago, FDA, BARDA, and private partners began work on making this product available across the country while continuing to evaluate data through clinical trials. Our work on Convalescent Plasma has delivered broader access to product than is available in any other country and reached more than 70 000 American patients so far. We are deeply grateful to Americans who have already donated and encourage individuals who have recovered from COVID - 19 to consider donating Convalescent Plasma. Stephen M. Hahn, MD, FDA Commissioner: I am committed to releasing safe and potentially helpful treatments for COVID - 19 as quickly as possible in order to save lives. We were encouraged by early promising data that weve seen about Convalescent Plasma. Data from studies conducted this year show that plasma from patients who recovered from COVID - 19 has potential to help treat those who are suffering from the effects of getting this terrible virus, say Dr. Hahn. At the same time, we will continue to work with researchers to continue randomized clinical trials to study the safety and effectiveness of Convalescent Plasma in treating patients infected with novel coronavirus. Base on Evaluation of EUA criteria and totality of available scientific evidence, FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research determined that statutory criteria for issuing EUA criteria were meet. Fda determined that it is reasonable to believe that COVID - 19 Convalescent Plasma may be effective in lessening severity or shortening length of COVID - 19 illness in some Hospitalized Patients. The Agency also determined that known and potential benefits of product, when used to treat COVID - 19, outweigh known and potential risks of the product and that that there are no adequate, appropriate and available alternative treatments.
All coronaviruses use the same mechanism to reproduce, which involves an enzyme called viral RNA polymerase, so Baric said that was an obvious target. Polymerase makes lots of mistakes as it copies viruses and it relies on another enzyme, know as exonuclease, to proofread and fix them. Remdesivir appears to disable proofreading enzyme. Then the virus copying factory becomes sloppy and produces fewer new viruses. Eidd - 2801, compound with promising animal and test - tube results reported in early April, aims at the same viral enzyme. But unlike remdesivir, which much be given intravenously, EIDD - 2801 can be taken as a pill. For this reason, Baric and other researchers investigating EIDD - 2801, including George Painter, professor of pharmacology and president of Emory Institute for Drug Development, which first produced the drug, suspect it may end up being more widely used than remdesivir. In 2018, Painter and his colleagues identified EIDD - 2801s activity during search for universal influenza medicine. When SARS - CoV - 2 emerge, painters group immediately shifted focus. Eidd - 2801, like remdesivir, inhibits coronaviruss self - copying operations, but it also works against virus variants with mutations that make them resistant to Gilead Drug. In addition, EIDD - 2801 is effective against a host of other RNA viruses, so it could serve as a multipurpose antiviral, much as some antibiotics can work against a wide variety of bacteria. For COVID - 19, say Wayne Holman, co - founder of Miami - base Ridgeback Biotherapeutics, which has licensed the drug and is planning clinical trials, goal is to have a pill that can be taken by patients at home early in the course of disease to prevent it from progressing.
Most people will have mild coronavirus symptoms. There is no cure for this virus, but there are many simple ways to treat symptoms that will help your body fight the virus. Most people will feel better after a few days and feel totally fine within a week. However, they will still be contagious, so they should remain in isolation for 14 days from the time of first symptoms. Treat fever, cough and shortness of breath with techniques listed above and you will most likely feel better shortly. Staying hydrated and resting will help most. Remember to stay away from other people and practice good cleanliness protocol to protect your loved ones from contracting viruses as well.
The Coronavirus enters your body through your mouth, eyes or nose, then quickly spreads into your cells. Once inside your cells, it cannot be killed except by your body's immune reaction. To protect against virus, use alcohol - base hand - sanitizers that kill virus and bacteria on your hands by drying out particles BEFORE they enter your body, or wash hands thoroughly with soap and water. Disinfectants, including alcohol and chlorine, can kill virus particles on surfaces BEFORE they can infect you. But chlorine bleach is very poisonous, so never put it in your mouth. If using bleach to disinfect surfaces, use 1 part bleach to 10 parts water.
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