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The Nervous System Work With Other Systems

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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The nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells know as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. It is essentially the body's electrical wiring. Structurally, nervous system has two components: central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. According to the National Institutes of Health, central nervous system is made up of the brain, spinal cord and nerves. The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons, ganglia and nerves that connect to one another and to the central nervous system. Functionally, nervous system has two main subdivisions: somatic, or voluntary, component; and autonomic, or involuntary, component. The autonomic nervous system regulates certain body process, such as blood pressure and rate of breathing, that work without conscious effort, according to Merck Manuals. The somatic system consists of nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord with muscles and sensory receptors in the skin.

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What Does the Brain Do?

The brain controls what you think and feel, how you learn and remember, and the way you move and talk. But it also controls things you are less aware of, like the beating of your heart and digestion of your food. Think of the brain as a central computer that controls all the body's functions. The rest of the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. It does this via the spinal cord, which runs from the brain down through the back. It contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part. When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, brain tells the body how to react. For example, if you touch a hot stove, nerves in your skin shoot message of pain to your brain. The brain then sends a message back telling muscles in your hand to pull away. Luckily, this neurological relay race happened in an instant.


Brain and Nervous System

The Central Nervous System, or CNS for short, is made up of the brain and spinal cord. Cns is a portion of the nervous system that is encase in bone. It is referred to as Central because it is the brain and spinal cord that are primarily responsible for processing sensory informationtouching hot stove or seeing rainbow, for exampleand, sending signals to the peripheral Nervous System for action. It communicates largely by sending electrical signals through individual nerve cells that make up fundamental building blocks of the Nervous System, called neurons. There are approximately 100 billion neurons in the human brain and each has many contacts with other neurons, called synapses. If we were able to magnify the view of individual neurons, we would see that they are cells made from distinct parts. Three main components of neuron are dendrites, soma, and axon. Neurons communicate with one another by receiving information through dendrites, which act as antenna. When dendrites channel this information to the soma, or cell body, it builds up as an electro - chemical signal. This electrical part of the signal, called action potential, shoots down axon, long tail that leads away from soma and toward the next neuron. When people talk about nerves in the Nervous System, they typically refer to bundles of axons that form long neural wires along which electrical signals can travel. Cell - to - cell communication is helped by the fact that the axon is covered by a myelin sheath layer of fatty cells that allow signals to travel very rapidly from neuron to neuron. If we were to zoom in still further, we could take a closer look at synapse, space between neurons. Here, we would see that there is space between neurons, called the synaptic gap. To give you a sense of scale, we can compare the synaptic gap to the thickness of the dime, thinnest of all American coins. You could stack approximately 70 000 synaptic gaps in the thickness of a single coin! As action potential, electrical signal reaches the end of the axon, tiny packets of chemicals, called neurotransmitters, are release. This is chemical part of electro - chemical signal. These neurotransmitters are chemical signals that travel from one neuron to another, enabling them to communicate with one another. There are many different types of neurotransmitters and each has a specialized function. For example, serotonin affects sleep, hunger and mood. Dopamine is associated with attention, learning and pleasure. It is amazing to realize that when you thinkwhen you reach out to grab a glass of water, when you realize that your best friend is happy, when you try to remember the names of parts of the neuronwhat you are experiencing is actually electro - chemical impulses shooting between nerves!

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Description of the nervous system

Nerves are cylindrical bundles of fibers that start at the brain and central cord and branch out to every other part of the body, according to University of Michigan Medical School. Neurons send signals to other cells through thin fibers called axons, which cause chemicals know as neurotransmitters to be released at junctions called synapses, NIH note. There are over 100 trillion neural connections in the average human brain, though number and location can vary. For example, new study published in January 2018 in the journal Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences found that out of 160 participants study, brains of highly creative people have more connections among three specific regions of the brain than less creative thinkers. You have these three different systems that are all located in different parts of the brain, but they are all co - activate at once, says lead study author Roger Beaty, postdoctoral fellow studying cognitive neuroscience at Harvard University. People who are better able to co - activate them with more - creative responses. The Synapse gives command to the cell and the entire communication process typically takes only a fraction of a millisecond. Signals travel along alpha motor neuron in the spinal cord 268 mph; fastest transmission in the human body, according to Discover magazine. Sensory neurons react to physical stimuli such as light, sound and touch and send feedback to the central nervous system about the body's surrounding environment, according to the American Psychological Association. Motor neurons, located in the central nervous system or in peripheral ganglia, transmit signals to activate muscles or glands. Glial cells, derive from the Greek word for glue, are specialized cells that support, protect or nourish nerve cells, according to Oregon Institute of Health and Science University. The brain's connections and thinking ability have grown over thousands of years of evolution. For example, virus bind its genetic code to the genome of four - limbed animals, and the code can still be found in human brains today, according to two papers published in the January 2018 journal Cell. This code packages up genetic information and sends it from nerve cells to other nearby nerve cells, very important process in the brain.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diagnosing nervous system conditions

A number of different medical conditions can affect the nervous system, including: Blood vessel disorders in the brain, including arteriovenous malformations and cerebral aneurysms Tumors, benign and malignant degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Disorders of pituitary gland Epilepsy Headaches, including migraines Head injuries such as concussions and Brain trauma Movement Disorders, such as Tremors and Parkinson disease Demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis Neuro - ophthalmologic diseases, which are vision problems that result from damage to optic Nerve or its connections to Brain Peripheral Nerve diseases, which affect nerves that carry information to and from Brain and Spinal cord Mental Disorders, such as schizophrenia Spine Disorders Infections, such as meningitis Stroke neurologists and other neuroscience specialists use special tests and imaging techniques to see how nerves and Brain are working. In addition to blood and urine tests, tests to diagnose nervous system diseases may include: compute tomography lumbar puncture to check for infection of spinal cord and brain, or to measure pressure of cerebro - Spinal fluid magnetic resonance imaging or magnetic resonance angiography electroencephalography to look at brain activity Electromyography to test Nerve and Muscle function Electronystagmography to check for abnormal eye movements, which can be sign of Brain disorder evoke potentials, which look at how Brain respond to sounds, sight, and touch Magnetoencephalography myelogram of Spine to diagnose Nerve injury Nerve conduction velocity test Neurocognitive testing polysomnogram to see how Brain react during sleep Single photon emission compute tomography and positron emission tomography scan to look at Brain metabolic activity Biopsy of Brain, Nerve, skin, or Muscle to determine if there's problem with nervous system neuroradiology is branch of neuroscience medicine that focus on diagnosing and treating nervous system problems. Interventional neuroradiology involves inserting tiny, flexible tubes called catheters into blood vessels leading to the brain. This allows doctors to treat blood vessel disorders that can affect the nervous system, such as stroke. Balloon angioplasty and stenting of carotid or vertebral artery Endovascular embolization and coiling to treat cerebral aneurysms Intra - arterial therapy for Stroke Radiation oncology of Brain and Spine Needle biopsies, Spine and soft tissues Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty to treat vertebral fractures open or traditional neurosurgery may be needed in some cases to treat problems in Brain and surrounding structures. This is more invasive surgery that requires surgeon to make an opening, called craniotomy, in the skull. Microsurgery allows surgeons to work on very small structures in the brain using microscope and very small, precise instruments. Stereotactic radiosurgery may be needed for certain types of nervous system disorders. This is a form of radiation therapy that focuses high - power X - rays on small areas of the body, thereby avoiding damage to surrounding brain tissue.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diseases of the nervous system

Your nervous system has lots of protection. Your brain is guarded by your skull, and your spinal cord is shielded by small bones in your spine and thin coverings. They are both cushioned by clear fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. Still, things can go wrong with your nervous system just like any other part of your body. When disorder damages it, it affects communication between your brain, your spinal cord, and your body. Examples of these disorders include: infections like meningitis, encephalitis, or polio Physical problems like injury, Bellas palsy, or carpal tunnel syndrome Conditions like Parkinsonas disease, Multiple sclerosis, or Alzheimeras disease Issues with your blood vessels, like strokes, Transient ischemic attacks, or subdural hematoma


Overview of Nervous System Disorders

The Nervous system is a complex, highly specialized network. It organize, explains, and directs interactions between you and the world around you. The nervous system controls: sight, hearing, taste, smell, and feeling. Voluntary and involuntary functions, such as movement, balance, and coordination. Nervous systems also regulate actions of most other body systems, such as blood flow and blood pressure. Ability to think and reason. The nervous system allows you to be conscious and have thoughts, memories, and language. The nervous system is divided into brain and spinal cord and nerve cells that control voluntary and involuntary movements. Symptoms of nervous system problem depend on which area of the nervous system is involved and what is causing the problem. Nervous system problems may occur slowly and cause gradual loss of function. Or they may occur suddenly and cause life - threatening problems. Symptoms may be mild or severe. Some serious conditions, diseases, and injuries that can cause nervous system problems include: blood supply problems. Injuries, especially injuries to the head and spinal cord. Problems that are present at birth. Mental health problems, such as anxiety disorders, depression, or psychosis. Exposure to toxins, such as carbon monoxide, arsenic, or lead. Problems that cause gradual loss of function. Examples include: Parkinson's disease. Multiple sclerosis. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Alzheimer's disease. Huntington's disease. Peripheral neuropathies. Infections. These may occur in: brain. The Membrane surrounds the brain and spinal cord. Overuse of or withdrawal from prescription and nonprescription medicines, illegal drugs, or alcohol. Brain tumor. Organ system failure. Examples include: Respiratory failure. Heart failure. Liver failure. Kidney failure. Other conditions. Some examples include: Thyroid dysfunction. High blood sugar or low blood sugar. Electrolyte problems. Nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin B1 or vitamin B12 deficiency. Guillain - Barre syndrome. Sudden nervous system problems can cause many different symptoms, depending on the area of nervous system involve. Strokes and transient ischemic attacks are common examples of acute problems. You may experience sudden onset of one or more symptoms, such as: numbness, tingling, weakness, or inability to move part or all of one side of your body. Dimness, blurring, double vision, or loss of vision in one or both eyes. Loss of speech, trouble talking, or trouble understanding speech. Sudden, severe headache. Dizziness, unsteadiness, or inability to stand or walk, especially if other symptoms are present. Confusion or change in level of consciousness or behavior. Severe nausea or vomiting. Seizures can also cause sudden changes in consciousness, feeling,s emotion,s or thought.S Abnormal body movements, such as muscle twitching, may or may not be present. How often seizures occur and how severe they are depends on the cause of seizures and the area of the brain involve. For more information, see topic Seizures. Diabetes can cause problems with balance, either as a result of peripheral neuropathy or stroke. Vertigo and Dizziness are problems of balance and coordination.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Study of the nervous system

Any man could, if he were so inclined, be sculptor of his own Brain. - Santiago Ramon y Cajal, Advice for Young Investigator Neuroscience is Scientific study of the Nervous System and its functions. The belief that the brain is an organ that controls behavior has ancient roots, dating to early civilizations that connected loss of function to damage to parts of the brain and spinal cord. But the modern era of neuroscience began - and continues to progress - with the development of tools, techniques, and methods used to measure in ever more detail and complexity the structure and function of the nervous System.S The modern era of neuroscience can be traced to the 1890s, when Spanish pathologist Santiago Ramon y Cajal used a method developed by Italian physician Camillo Golgi to stain nerve tissues to visualize the morphology and structure of neurons and their connections. A Detailed description of neurons and their connections by Cajal, his students, and their followers led to the neuron doctrine, which proposes that neurons are functional unit of the Nervous System. We now know that the human brain contains approximately one hundred billion neurons and that these neurons have some one hundred trillion connections, forming functional and definable circuits. These neural circuits can be organized into larger networks and anatomical structures that integrate information across and between all sensory modalities - including hearing, seeing, touching, tasting, and smelling - from all parts of the nervous system. These networks process information derived from internal and external environment, and the consequence of processing this sensory information is cognition, concept that includes learning and memory, perception, sleep, decision - making, emotions, and all forms of higher information processing. In response to simple or complex sensory experience, organism responds or behaves. Behavior can be simple, like motor reflex in response to pain, or more complicated, like playing squash, working crossword puzzle, or painting. However, behavior is not just what organisms do in response to stimulus or sensory input; it is most often what organisms choose to do from a variety of available options in response to a complex set of environmental conditions. Thus, except for rare responses, like simple reflexes, behavior is expressed in response to a combination of immediate sensory stimuli integrated over time with Cognition. Neuroscientists conduct experiments to understand how sensory information is processed to lead to behavior. Because of the obvious complexity of the brain, neuroscientists conduct their studies at different levels of depth. While neurons are conceivably the smallest units in which behavior can be clearly describe, neuron is itself made up of unique anatomical features, including soma, dendrites, and axons. These neuronal components in turn contain subcellular specializations that represent defining features of neuron. The key among these specializations is synapse: structure shared by dendrite and axon that represents junction point for the principal form of communication between two neurons.


Neurons

The smallest worker in the nervous system is the neuron. For each of chain of impulses there is one preganglionic neuron, or one before cell body or ganglion, that is like central controlling body for numerous neurons going out peripherally. Preganglionic neurons are located in either the brain or spinal cord. In autonomic nervous system, this preganglionic neuron projects to autonomic ganglion. Postganglionic neurons were then projected to target organ. In the somatic nervous system, there is only one neuron between the central nervous system and the target organ while the autonomic nervous system uses two neurons.

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Communication among Organ Systems

Communication among organ systems is vital if they are to work together as a team. They must be able to respond to each other and change their responses as they need to keep their body in balance. Communication among organ systems is controlled mainly by the autonomic nervous system and endocrine system. The autonomic nervous system is part of the nervous system that controls involuntary functions. For example, autonomic nervous system controls heart rate, blood flow, and digestion. You do have to tell your heart to beat faster or to consciously squeeze muscles to push food through the digestive system. In fact, you do n't have to even think about these functions at all. The autonomic nervous system orchestrates all signals needed to control them. It sends messages between parts of the nervous system and between nervous system and other organ systems via chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. Figure: Figure illustrates the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, brain stem, spinal cord, cerebellum, pineal gland, and cerebrum. The endocrine system is a system of glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. Once in the blood, endocrine hormones circulate to cells everywhere in the body. The endocrine system is under control of the hypothalamus, part of the brain. The Hypothalamus secretes hormones that travel directly to cells of the pituitary gland, which is located beneath it. The pituitary gland is the master gland of the endocrine system. Most of its hormones either turn on or turn off other endocrine glands. For example, if the pituitary gland secretes thyroid stimulating hormone, hormone travels through circulation to the thyroid gland, which is stimulated to secrete thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone then travels to cells throughout the body, where it increases their metabolism.

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Examples of Organ System Interactions

Cellular respiration is an intracellular process that breaks down glucose with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and energy in the form of ATP molecules. It is a process by which cells obtain usable energy to power other cellular processes. Which organ systems are involved in cellular respiration? Glucose needed for cellular respiration comes from the digestive system via the cardiovascular system. Oxygen needed for cellular respiration comes from the respiratory system also via the cardiovascular system. Carbon dioxide produced in cellular respiration leaves the body by opposite route In short, cellular respiration requires at minimum digestive, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems.

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Nervous System Anatomy

The picture you have in your mind of the nervous system probably includes the brain, nervous tissue contained within the cranium, and spinal cord, extension of nervous tissue within the vertebral column. That suggests it is made of two organsand you may not even think of the spinal cord as an organbut, nervous system is a very complex structure. Within the brain, many different and separate regions are responsible for many different and separate functions. It is as if the nervous system is composed of many organs that all look similar and can only be differentiated using tools such as microscope or electrophysiology. In comparison, it is easy to see that the stomach is different than the esophagus or liver, so you can imagine the digestive system as a collection of specific organs. In 2003, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield for discoveries related to magnetic resonance imaging. This is a tool to see structures of the body that depend on magnetic fields associated with certain atomic nuclei. The utility of this technique in the nervous system is that fat tissue and water appear as different shades of black and white. Because white matter is fatty and gray matter is not, they can be easily distinguished in MRI images. Visit the Nobel Prize web site to play an interactive game that demonstrates use of this technology and compare it with other types of imaging technologies. Also, results from MRI session are compared with images obtained from X - ray or computed tomography. How do imaging techniques shown in this game indicate separation of white and gray matter compared with freshly dissected tissue shown earlier?

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Nervous System Physiology

Each of 12 cranial nerves has a specific function within the nervous system. Olfactory nerves carry scent information to the brain from the olfactory epithelium on the roof of the nasal cavity. Optic nerves carry visual information from the eyes to the brain. Oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves all work together to allow the brain to control movement and focus of the eyes. Trigeminal nerve carries sensations from the face and innervate muscles of mastication. Facial nerve innervates muscles of the face to make facial expressions and carry taste information from the anterior 2 / 3 of the tongue. Vestibulocochlear nerve conduct auditory and balance information from ears to the brain. The Glossopharyngeal nerve carries taste information from posterior 1 / 3 of the tongue and assists in swallowing. Vagus nerve, sometimes called wandering nerve due to the fact that it innervate many different areas, awandersa through the head, neck, and torso. It carries information about the condition of vital organs to the brain, delivers motor signals to control speech and delivers parasympathetic signals to many organs. Accessory nerves control movements of the shoulders and neck. Hypoglossal nerve moves the tongue for speech and swallowing.


Functions of the Nervous System

The nervous system has 3 main functions: sensory, integration, and motor. Sensory. The sensory function of the nervous system involves collecting information from sensory receptors that monitor the bodyas internal and external conditions. These signals are then passed on to the central nervous system for further processing by afferent neurons. Integration. The process of integration is the processing of many sensory signals that are passed into CNS at any given time. These signals are evaluate, compare, used for decision making, discarded or committed to memory as deemed appropriate. Integration takes place in gray matter of the brain and spinal cord and is performed by interneurons. Many interneurons work together to form complex networks that provide this processing power. Motor. Once networks of interneurons in CNS evaluate sensory information and decide on action, they stimulate efferent neurons. Efferent neurons carry signals from gray matter of CNS through nerves of the peripheral nervous system to effector cells. Effector may be smooth, cardiac, or skeletal muscle tissue or glandular tissue. Effector then releases hormones or moves part of the body to respond to stimulus. Unfortunately, of course, our nervous system does always function as it should. Sometimes this is a result of diseases like Alzheimeras and Parkinsonas disease. Do you know that DNA testing can help you discover your genetic risk of acquiring certain health conditions that affect organs of our nervous system? Late - onset Alzheimeras, Parkinsonas disease, macular degeneration - visit our guide to DNA health testing to find out more.

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The Central Nervous System (CNS)

The brain is found in the cranial cavity and consists of the cerebrum and cerebellum. It houses nerve centers responsible for coordinating sensory and motor systems in the body. Cerebrum, or top portion of the brain, is the seat of higher - level thought. It is comprised of two hemispheres, each controlling opposite side of the body. Each of these hemispheres is divided into four separate lobes: frontal lobe, which controls specialized motor control, learning, planning, and speech; parietal lobe, which controls somatic or voluntary sensory functions; occipital lobe, which controls vision; temporal lobe, which controls hearing and some other speech functions. The cerebellum is located underneath the backside of the cerebrum, and governs balance and fine motor movements. Its main function is maintaining coordination throughout the body.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

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Sources

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