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Throat Cancer Treatable

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Last Updated: 16 October 2020

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General | Latest Info

Cancer is a class of disease in which abnormal cells multiply and divide uncontrollably in the body. These abnormal cells form malignant growths called tumors. Throat Cancer refers to cancer of the voice box, vocal cords, and other parts of the throat, such as tonsils and oropharynx. Throat Cancer is often Group into two categories: pharyngeal Cancer and laryngeal Cancer. Throat Cancer is relatively uncommon in comparison to other cancers. The National Cancer Institute estimates that of adults in the United States: about 1. 2 percent will be diagnosed with oral cavity and pharyngeal Cancer within their lifetime. About 0. 3 percent will be diagnosed with laryngeal Cancer within their lifetime. Most throat cancers are generally related to smoking and not hereditary, unless family members are predisposed to smoking. Outside of the larynx, number of inherited genes predispose family members to cancer development. Some people inherit DNA mutations from their parents that greatly increase their risk for developing certain cancers. Inherited mutations of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes rarely cause throat Cancer, but some people seem to inherit reduced ability to break down certain types of Cancer - causing chemicals. These people are more sensitive to cancer - causing effects of tobacco smoke, alcohol, and certain industrial chemicals.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Treatment options for throat cancer

These cancers are often harder to treat than laryngeal cancers. Because they don't cause symptoms when they are small, most are already at an advanced stage when they are re diagnose. Tumors in this area also tend to spread to lymph nodes, even when there's no obvious mass in the neck. Because of this, treatment of lymph nodes in the neck is often recommended. The main options for initial treatment of these cancers are surgery with or without radiation to lymph nodes. Surgery includes removing all or part of the pharynx as well as lymph nodes on both sides of the neck. The larynx often needs to be removed as well. People who have a high chance of cancer returning may then be treated with radiation or Chemotherapy combined with radiation. Some patients with small tumors may get radiation as their main treatment. Cancer is assessed again after treatment is complete and if there's any cancer leave, surgery is done. One option to treat these cancers is surgery to remove pharynx, larynx, and lymph nodes in the neck. This is usually followed by radiation alone or radiation with chemo, especially if there's high chance that cancer will come back based on what is found during surgery. Another option is to be treated first with radiation or both radiation and chemo. If any cancer remains after treatment, surgery can then be done to try to remove it. The third option is to get Chemotherapy as first treatment, called induction Chemotherapy. This is usually followed by radiation therapy or chemoradiation, depending on how much the tumor shrinks. If the tumor does not shrink, surgery might be needed. If lymph nodes in the neck are still enlarged after treatment, surgery can be done to remove them. Cancers that are too big or have spread too far to be completely removed by surgery are often treated with radiation, usually combined with chemo or cetuximab. Another option might be treatment with immunotherapy drug, either alone or with chemotherapy. Sometimes, if the tumor shrinks enough, surgery on lymph nodes in the neck may be an option. But for many advanced cancers, goal of treatment is often to stop or slow growth of cancer for as long as possible and to help relieve any symptoms it may be causing. Most experts agree that treatment in clinical trials should be considered for advanced stage hypopharyngeal cancers. This way, patients can get the best treatment available now and may also get treatments that are thought to be even better.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

How Cancer Affects Vocal Function

As tumors grow they encroach on airway and affect the muscles of the voice box. These muscles are vitally important in providing protection of trachea during swallowing of solids, liquids and saliva. When interfered with, closure of the larynx is incomplete and can lead to severe coughing, choking or even chronic pneumonia. The structure of the voice box also provides rigid support for trachea to facilitate respiration. Compromise of this function causes shortness of breath, noisy and labor breathing. Finally, larynx is important in communication. The voice box consists of upper and lower components. The upper part is called the supraglottic larynx and consists of epiglottis; false vocal cords and supporting muscles within the framework of a cartilaginous box called thyroid cartilage. When cancers grow here, they interfere with swallowing and cause pain in the ear, but only affect voice in minor way, leading to thick speech, hot potato voice or change in timbre. The lower part of the voice box contains true vocal cords and extends down to the top of the windpipe, cricoid cartilage. Cancer in this region, term glottis, causes significant hoarseness as a primary symptom. There are natural cartilage and fibrous barriers to the spread of cancer within the larynx that are well understood by Head and Neck surgeons. These barriers prevent spread and invasion of malignant cells so that cancer of glottis tends to remain localized for long periods of time, often six to eight months, before they are discover. Because there is a sparse lymphatic drainage system in this region, spread of cancer to adjacent lymph nodes in the neck is generally late stage of malignant growth. In the supraglottic larynx, however, tissues are looser, lymphatics are more abundant and spread to lymph nodes occurs early and often. Thus, most treatment approaches for cancer, even early ones arising in the supraglottic larynx, include treatment of lymph nodes in the neck, while treatment of early vocal cord Cancer focuses on the primary tumor in the larynx.


Laryngeal cancers

The main options for initial treatment for these cancers are surgery or chemotherapy with radiation. Radiation therapy alone may be an option for people who cannot tolerate more intensive treatments. Immunotherapy might be another option for some people with stage IV cancer. Surgery for these tumors is almost always complete removal of the larynx, but a small number of these cancers might be treated by partial laryngectomy. If they haven't spread already, these cancers have a higher risk of spreading to nearby lymph nodes in the neck, so these lymph nodes are often removed along with the tumor if surgery is being done Radiation therapy, often given with chemo, may be needed after surgery, especially if cancer has spread to lymph nodes or has other features that make it more likely to come back. Instead of using surgery as first step, many doctors now prefer to start treatment with chemoradiation. If any cancer remains after treatment, surgery can then be done to try to remove it. This treatment can be difficult, but it works as well as total laryngectomy and gives chance to save the larynx. If the framework of the larynx has been destroyed by cancer, larynx may never work normally again, no matter what treatment is choose. In these cases, best treatment may be surgery to remove the larynx and nearby tissues with cancer. Another option may be to start with just chemotherapy, which is called induction chemotherapy. If the tumor shrinks, radiation therapy or chemoradiation is then give. If the tumor doesnt shrink, surgery is usually the next treatment. Cancers that are too big or have spread too far to be completely removed by surgery are often treated with radiation, usually combined with chemotherapy or cetuximab. Another option might be treatment with immunotherapy drug, either alone or with chemotherapy. Sometimes, if the tumor shrinks enough, surgery on lymph nodes in the neck may be an option. But for many advanced cancers, goal of treatment is often to stop or slow growth of cancer for as long as possible and to help relieve any symptoms it may be causing. Most experts agree that treatment in clinical trials should be considered for advanced stage laryngeal cancers. This way, patients can get the best treatment available now and may also get treatments that are thought to be even better.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Cancer Evaluation and Staging

Development of more effective cancer treatments requires that new and innovative therapies be evaluated with cancer patients. Clinical trials are studies that evaluate the effectiveness of new drugs or treatment strategies. Future progress in treatment of Metastatic Cancer of the throat will result from continued evaluation of new treatments in Clinical trials. Pd - 1 Inhibitors: Keytruda and Opdivo belong to a new class of drugs called PD - 1 Inhibitors that have generated great excitement for their ability to help the immune system recognize and attack Cancer. Pd - 1 is a protein that inhibits certain types of immune responses. Drugs that block PD - 1 enhance the ability of the immune system to fight cancer. Both Opdivo and Keytruda are immunotherapies that work by blocking PD - 1 and have demonstrated impressive activity in treatment of Head and Neck Cancer. Clinical studies are ongoing that combine PD - 1 Inhibitors with other drugs in order to determine their optimal use in management of throat cancer. Egfr Inhibitors: Vectibix inhibit Cancer Cell growth and Survival by targeting EGFR. Although clinical studies indicate that Vectibix does not improve overall survival compared to chemotherapy alone, subset analysis of this study indicates that patients with HPV - negative Head and Neck Cancer do experience improvement in survival with the addition of Vectibix to chemotherapy. Blot WJ, McLaughlin JK, Winn DM, et al.: Smoking and drinking in relation to oral and pharyngeal Cancer. Cancer Res 48: 3282 - 7 1988. Dsouza G, Kreimer AR, Viscidi R, et al.: Case - control study of human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal Cancer. N Engl J Med 356: 1944 - 56 2007. Seiwert TY, Haddad RI, Gupta S, et al. Antitumor activity and Safety of pembrolizumab in patients with advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck: preliminary results from KEYNOTE - 012 expansion cohort. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 33 2015. Bristol - Myers Squibb. First Presentation of Overall Survival Data for Opdivo shows Significant Survival Benefit at One - Year Versus Investigators Choice in Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck. Available at: http: / news. Bms. Com / press - release / aacr / first - Presentation - Overall - Survival - Data - Opdivo - nivolumab - show - Significant - survi. Access May 1 2016. Adelstein DJ, Tan EH, Lavertu P: Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer: role of chemotherapy. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 24: 97 - 116 1996. Jacobs C, Lyman G, Velez - Garcia E, et al.: Phase III randomized study comparing cisplatin and fluorouracil as single agents and in combination for advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck. J Clin Oncol 10: 257 - 63 1992. Seiwert TY, Haddad RI, Gupta S, et al. Antitumor activity and Safety of pembrolizumab in patients with advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck: preliminary results from KEYNOTE - 012 expansion cohort. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 33 2015. Bristol - Myers Squibb. First Presentation of Overall Survival Data for Opdivo shows Significant Survival Benefit at One - Year Versus Investigators Choice in Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck. Available at: http: / news. Bms. Com / press - release / aacr / first - Presentation - Overall - Survival - Data - Opdivo - nivolumab - show - Significant - survi. Access May 1 2016. Mehra R, Seiwert T, Mahipal A, et al.


Treatment of Throat Cancer

Patients with metastatic cancer of the throat have cancer that has spread to distant sites beyond the throat and neck region. Patients with metastatic cancer are usually treated with systemic combination chemotherapy. However, control of primary cancer and regional lymph node spread through surgery or radiation is as important as controlling metastases. Radiation Therapy: Sometimes, Radiation Therapy is used to control both primary cancer and lymph node spread in patients with metastatic disease. In most instances, chemotherapy is combined with radiation therapy. Systemic Therapy figures prominently in the treatment of metastatic cancer of the throat. Systemic Therapy is treatment direct at destroying cancer cells throughout the body, and may include Chemotherapy, target Therapy, or immunotherapy. Most patients with metastatic throat cancer will be treated with systemic chemotherapy or immunotherapy. The goal of administering systemic therapy is to relieve symptoms, delay cancer progression and prolong survival. Systemic Therapy may include one or a combination of drugs. Combination Therapy is more commonly utilized due to improved response rates over single drugs. Historically, most frequently used combination was cisplatin and 5 - FU Chemotherapy. Pd - 1 Inhibitors: Keytruda is systemic immunotherapy that belongs to a new class of drugs called PD - 1 Inhibitors that work by helping the immune system recognize and attack cancer cells. Pd - 1 is a protein that inhibits certain types of immune responses. Drugs that block PD - 1 enhance the ability of the immune system to fight cancer. Keytruda works by blocking PD - 1. Results from the KEYNOTE - 012 clinical trial led to the FDA granting accelerated approval of Keytruda in some head and neck cancers. 50 trial evaluate Keytruda in treatment of 192 patients with metastatic or recurrent head and neck cancers. Overall, ~20% of individuals respond to treatment and over 70% of individual responses last longer than one year. Keytruda is approved for patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who have experienced disease preogression on or after platinum - containing Chemotherapy. Egfr Inhibitors: epidermal growth factor receptor pathway is a normal biologic pathway found in healthy cells. It is involved in regular cellular division and growth. However, certain mutations within EGFR gene can lead to overactive EGFR pathway, leading to development and / or spread of cancer. These cancers are referred to as EGFR - positive. There are several FDA - approved drugs that target or block activity of EGFR and slow cancer growth for EGFR - positive cancers. Erbitux: monoclonal antibodies are small proteins that can locate and target cancer cells in the body that are produced in the laboratory to either kill cancer cells directly, activate the immune system to kill cancer cells, or serve as a delivery system for radioactive isotopes or toxin which kill cancer cells. Erbitux is a monoclonal antibody that can block EGFRs. In comparative trial of locally advanced head and neck cancer patients, curative - intent Radiation Therapy alone was compared with Radiation Therapy plus weekly Erbitux. Patients treated with Erbitux and Radiation Therapy demonstrate significantly improved progression - free survival. A study known as EXTREME contributed to FDA approval of Erbitux.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Management Alternatives

This information is based on AJCC Staging systems prior to 2018 which were primarily based on tumor size and lymph node status. Since the updated staging system for oropharyngeal Cancer now also includes p16 status of tumor, stages may be higher or lower than previous staging systems. Whether or not treatment strategies will change with this new staging system is yet to be determine. You should discuss your stage and treatment options with your physician. The type of treatment your doctor will recommend depends on where the tumor is and how far the cancer has spread. Here are common ways to treat different stages of oral cavity and oropharyngeal Cancer. But each situation is different. Your doctor may have reasons for suggesting treatment option not mentioned here. Most experts agree that treatment in clinical trials should be considered for any type or stage of cancer in the head and neck areas. This way, people can get the best treatment available now and may also get new treatments that are thought to be even better.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Stage 0 Throat Cancer

These cancers are almost always glottic cancers that are found early because of voice changes. They are nearly always curable with either endoscopic surgery or radiation therapy. The patient is then watched closely to see if cancer returns. If cancer does come back, radiation can be used. Almost all people at this stage can be cured without major surgery. But it's important for them to know that if they smoke, continuing to do so makes treatment less likely to work and increases the risk that another tumor will develop. Most people with stage I and II laryngeal cancers can be treated successfully without totally removing their larynx. Either radiation alone or partial laryngectomy can be used in most people. Many doctors use radiation therapy for smaller cancers. Voice results tend to be better with radiation therapy than with partial laryngectomy, and there tend to be fewer problems with radiation treatment. Treatment for glottic cancers and supraglottic cancers is slightly different. Some early glottic cancers may be treated by removing vocal cord with cancer, or even by laser surgery. Radiation or surgery is usually enough to treat most glottic cancers unless there are signs that treatment might not have cured the cancer. If you need more treatment after surgery, your options might include radiation therapy, chemoradiation, or surgery to remove more of the larynx. Supraglottic cancers are more likely to spread to neck lymph nodes. If so, nodes are treated too. If you are having surgery for your tumor, then surgeon may remove lymph nodes from your neck. If your treatment is radiation therapy alone, you will also get radiation to lymph nodes in your neck. If, after surgery, cancer is found to have features that make it more likely to come back, more treatment such as radiation therapy, chemoradiation, or more extensive surgery may be needed. The main options for initial treatment for these cancers are surgery or chemotherapy with radiation. Radiation therapy alone may be an option for people who cannot tolerate more intensive treatments. Immunotherapy might be another option for some people with stage IV cancer. Surgery for these tumors is almost always complete removal of the larynx, but a small number of these cancers might be treated by partial laryngectomy. If they haven't spread already, these cancers have a higher risk of spreading to nearby lymph nodes in the neck, so these lymph nodes are often removed along with the tumor if surgery is being done Radiation therapy, often given with chemo, may be needed after surgery, especially if cancer has spread to lymph nodes or has other features that make it more likely to come back. Instead of using surgery as first step, many doctors now prefer to start treatment with chemoradiation. If any cancer remains after treatment, surgery can then be done to try to remove it. This treatment can be difficult, but it works as well as total laryngectomy and gives chance to save the larynx.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Hypopharyngeal cancer

Stages of hypopharyngeal Cancer are number 0 through IV. Stage 0: Cancer is confined only to the lining of the hypopharynx. There is no spread to lymph nodes. Stage I: tumor is in the hypopharynx and is 2 centimeters or smaller in size. There is no spread to lymph nodes. Stage II: tumor is either larger than 2 centimeters, but not larger than 4 centimeters, and has not spread to the larynx, or it is found in more than one area of the hypopharynx or tissues nearby. There is no spread to lymph nodes. Stage III: tumor can be any size but is confined to the throat, but cancer has usually also spread to single lymph node on the same side of the neck, and lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller. Stage IV: This Stage is divided into Stage IVA, IVB, and IVC. Stages IVA and IVB: this are advanced stages in which local disease and / or lymph node disease has spread. Spreading may involve movement from the pharynx into nearby soft tissues, such as voice box, thyroid gland, or carotid artery. Neck disease may have spread to several lymph nodes or very large lymph nodes. Stage IVC: Cancer has spread beyond the hypopharynx to other parts of the body.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Survival by stage

Floor of the mouth

SEER Stage5-Year Relative Survival Rate
Local77%
Regional38%
Distant20%
All SEER stages combined52%

The Office for National Statistics doesn't provide 5 year survival statistics for stage 4 laryngeal Cancer. There is not enough information available. The following statistics are for 1 year survival for people with stage 4 laryngeal Cancer. Around 65 out of 100 people will survive their cancer for 1 year or more after they are diagnose. Stage 4 Cancer may have spread into tissue outside the larynx such as thyroid or food pipe. It may have spread to lymph nodes which are further away and larger in size. And it may have spread to other parts of the body.


Treatment of Throat Cancer

Patients with recurrent cancer of the throat have residual cancer after initial treatment or recurrence after initial complete response. Recurrent throat cancer falls into one of two broad categories: 1 cancer that returns locally or regionally and 2 metastatic recurrence, or recurrence at a distant site. Historically, due to lack of local disease control and the spread of cancer, patients with metastatic disease tend to have poor long - term survival rate,. However, advances in targeted precision medicines and immunotherapies are increasing disease control and providing new treatment options. Local or Regional Recurrence: cornerstone of treatment for local or Regional Recurrence is surgery and / or radiation therapy, and may include systemic therapy. Use of radiation / surgery is influenced by location and size of recurrent cancer and prior treatment. If a patient initially receives radiation therapy, surgery can sometimes be utilized to control local or regional recurrence of cancer. If patient was initially treated with surgery, radiation therapy or combination of these modalities may be effective for controlling cancer recurrence. Surgical resection is used if radiation therapy fails and if technically feasible. 1 radiation therapy is used if not previously used in curative doses that preclude further treatment, if surgery fail. Surgical salvage if technically feasible, when surgery fail. Systemic therapy with chemotherapy or other drugs is used for metastatic disease.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

Lip

SEER Stage5-Year Relative Survival Rate
Local92%
Regional60%
Distant28%
All SEER stages combined90%

Tongue

SEER Stage5-Year Relative Survival Rate
Local81%
Regional68%
Distant39%
All SEER stages combined66%
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Oral Cancer: Common, But Curable

Floor of the mouth

SEER Stage5-Year Relative Survival Rate
Local77%
Regional38%
Distant20%
All SEER stages combined52%

Close to 53 000 Americans will be diagnosed with Oral or oropharyngeal Cancer this year. It will cause over 9 750 deaths, killing roughly 1 person per hour, 24 hours per day. Of those 53 000 newly diagnosed individuals, only slightly more than half will be alive in 5 years. This is a number which has not significantly improved in decades. The death rate for Oral Cancer is higher than that of cancers which we hear about routinely, such as cervical Cancer, Hodgkins lymphoma, laryngeal Cancer, Cancer of testes, and many others. If you expand the definition of oral and oropharyngeal cancers to include cancer of the larynx, numbers of diagnosed cases grow to approximately 54 000 individuals and 13 500 deaths per year in the US alone. Worldwide, problem is much greater, with over 450 000 new cases being found each year. Note that world incidence numbers from WHO, while best available, are estimate that users should consider with caveats. Data collection and reporting in some countries is problematic in spite of professional efforts of WHO to be accurate. Oral cancers are part of a group of cancers commonly referred to as head and neck cancers, and of all head and neck cancers, they comprise about 85% of that category. Brain Cancer is a cancer category unto itself and is not included in the head and neck Cancer group. Historically, death rate associated with this cancer is particularly high not because it is hard to discover or diagnose, but due to cancer being routinely discovered late in its development. Today, that statement is still true, as there is no comprehensive program in the US to opportunistically screen for disease, and without that, late - stage discovery is more common. Another obstacle to early discovery is invention of the virus, HPV16, contributing more to the incidence rate of oral cancers, particularly in the posterior part of the mouth, which many times does not produce visible lesions or discolorations that have historically been early warning signs of disease process in the anterior of mouth. Often, oral cancer is only discovered when cancer has metastasized to another location, most likely the lymph nodes of the neck. Prognosis at this stage of discovery is significantly worse than when it is caught in a localized intraoral area. Besides metastasis, at these later stages, primary tumors have had time to invade deep into local structures. Oral Cancer is particularly dangerous because in its early stages it may not be noticed by patient,s as it can frequently prosper without producing pain or symptoms they might readily recognize, and because it has a high risk of producing second, primary tumors. This means that patients WHO survive first encounter with disease, have up to 20 times higher risk of developing second cancer. This heightened risk factor can last for 5 to 10 years after first occurrence. There are several types of oral cancers, but around 90% are squamous cell carcinomas.


Recovering from oral cancer treatment

Surgery to remove the tumor. Your surgeon may cut away the tumor and margin of healthy tissue that surrounds it to ensure all of the cancer cells have been remove. Smaller cancers may be removed through minor surgery. Larger tumors may require more extensive procedures. For instance, removing a larger tumor may involve removing a section of your jawbone or portion of your tongue. Surgery to remove cancer that has spread to the neck. If cancer cells have spread to lymph nodes in your neck or if there's high risk that this has happened based on the size or depth of your cancer, your surgeon may recommend procedure to remove lymph nodes and related tissue in your neck. Neck dissection removes any cancer cells that may have spread to your lymph nodes. It's also useful for determining whether you will need additional treatment after surgery. Surgery to reconstruct mouth. After the operation to remove your cancer, your surgeon may recommend reconstructive surgery to rebuild your mouth to help you regain the ability to talk and eat. Your surgeon may transplant grafts of skin, muscle or bone from other parts of your body to reconstruct your mouth. Dental implants can also be used to replace your natural teeth. Surgery carries risk of bleeding and infection. Surgery for mouth cancer often affects your appearance, as well as your ability to speak, eat and swallow. You may need a tube to help you eat, drink and take medicine. For short - term use, tube may be inserted through your nose and into your stomach. In the longer term, tube may be inserted through your skin and into your stomach. Your doctor may refer you to specialists who can help you cope with these changes.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

Lip

SEER Stage5-Year Relative Survival Rate
Local92%
Regional60%
Distant28%
All SEER stages combined90%

Tongue

SEER Stage5-Year Relative Survival Rate
Local81%
Regional68%
Distant39%
All SEER stages combined66%
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Side effects

Even with steps MD Anderson doctors are taking to minimize side effects, Head and Neck cancer patients do often experience them - especially since these patients are so young and have so many years of life ahead, giving them more time to develop side effects. And give sensitive areas that have been treat, symptoms - like dry mouth, trouble speaking or swallowing - can be painful and life - altering. Md Anderson is working to not just treat cancer, but also to ease side effects of treatment. About 10 days into radiation, patients may start experiencing some side effects. Md Anderson has a team of oral oncologists and maxillofacial prosthodontists to assist those patients, whether by adjusting their diet to ease symptoms or creating dentures or prostheses especially for them. Each patient with Head and Neck cancer will have a personalized approach to oral care to include oral cleaning, soft tissue protectants, oral opening exercise and tooth decay prevention based on outcomes and research, said Mark Chambers, DMD, professor of Head and Neck Surgery. In addition, about 5 to 10 percent of patients with mouth and throat cancers will develop difficulty swallowing. This often occurs about eight years after cancer treatment has been complete. To help this specific patient population, MD Anderson created the Radiation Swallowing Pathway and Swallowing Boot Camp Program. We organize Swallowing therapies into stepwise, intensive program to fit the needs of patients with Head and Neck cancer along their journey of survivorship, says speech - language pathologist Kate Hutcheson, ph. D, who is conducting research design to improve patients ' ability to comfortably swallow. The goal is for all patients to receive basic therapies to help them maintain swallowing function during and after cancer treatment. Since its inception nearly seven years ago, more than 130 patients with more severe swallowing problems have completed Boot Camp. This highly interdisciplinary program takes patients through stepwise program often culminating in three weeks of daily therapy. During this time, patients work on therapeutic exercises and swallowing practice under guidance of a speech pathologist. While techniques do not completely reverse side effects, most patients experience functional gains and report improved quality of life after completing Boot Camp, and many are able to avoid feeding tubes. The program is personalized and its impact is different for each patient, but the goal is to help each patient live better with swallowing problem, Hutcheson say. Hutcheson is currently conducting research to help determine which patients are most likely to experience difficulty swallowing in hopes that such therapy techniques could be used earlier as a form of prevention.


What is head and neck cancer?

There are many types of head and neck cancers. Your doctor can tell you more about the type you have. Here are some of the most common types: oral cavity cancer - starts in the mouth. Oropharyngeal cancer - starts in the back of mouth or throat. Nasal cavity cancer - starts in an opening behind the nose, space that runs along the top of the roof of the mouth and then turns downward to join the back of the mouth and throat. Paranasal sinus cancer - starts in openings around or near nose call sinuses Nasopharyngeal cancer - starts in the upper part of throat behind nose Laryngeal cancer - starts in voice box. Hypopharyngeal cancer - starts in the lower part of throat beside and behind voice box most common type of cancer in head and neck area is call carcinoma. These cancers start in cells that line all parts of the nose, mouth, and throat.


What kind of treatment will I need?

Clinical Trials are research studies that test new drugs or other treatments in people. They compare standard treatments with others that may be better. If you would like to be in a clinical trial, start by asking your doctor if your clinic or hospital conducts Clinical Trials. See Clinical Trials to learn more. Clinical Trials are one way to get state - of - art cancer treatment. They are the best way for doctors to find better ways to treat cancer. If your doctor can find one that studies the kind of cancer you have, it is up to you whether to take part. And if you do sign up for clinical trial, you can always stop at any time.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Prevention

Throat cancer refers to cancerous tumors that develop in your throat, voice box or tonsils. Your throat is a muscular tube that begins behind your nose and ends in your neck. Throat cancer most often begins with flat cells that line the inside of your throat. Your voice box sits just below your throat and also is susceptible to throat cancer. The Voice box is made of cartilage and contains vocal cords that vibrate to make sound when you talk. Throat cancer can also affect pieces of cartilage that act as a lid for your windpipe. Tonsil cancer, another form of throat cancer, affects tonsils, which are located in the back of the throat.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging

Getting an early diagnosis of throat cancer greatly increases the chance of effective treatment. A doctor will ask a person about symptoms and carry out a physical examination. They may use a laryngoscope, which is a tube with a camera on it, to see what is happening inside the throat. Other imaging tests, such as X - ray, CT, or MRI scan, can help doctors see how far the cancer has spread. A doctor may recommend a biopsy. This involves taking samples of throat tissue or cells to test for cancer in the lab. Biopsy will also show what kind of cancer is present. These tests will help doctors determine the extent of cancer and the best way to treat it.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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