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Treatments For Infections

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Last Updated: 18 January 2022

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Drugs that treat infections in humans include antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiparasitic medications. Infections in humans are caused by microorganisms, and bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. There are more than trillion species of microbes, but only small number cause infection in humans. These are called pathogens. Term antibiotic usually refers to medications that treat bacterial like strep throat, ear infection, or urinary tract infection. But it can be more general term for medications that kill any type of microbe. Antimicrobial or anti - infective are general terms. More specific terms include antibacterial medications, which treat infections caused by bacteria; antiviral medications, which treat infections like influenza, HIV, or hepatitis C; antifungal medications, which treat infections like yeast infections, toenail infections, or valley Fever; and antiparasitic medications, which treat infections like or tapeworms. Pathogenic microbes can develop ways to evade antibiotics, increasing risk of infections that are difficult to treat. Antibiotic resistance is increasing and is top global public health threat. One response to this threat is reintroduction of older antibiotics that previously had fallen out of use. However, many older antibiotics are no used because of significant side effects. New antibiotics are being develop, but process is slow. Government agencies and professional organizations are involved in efforts to promote development of new antibiotics, and several new antibiotics have been approved in last few years. Another response is that different way to treat bacterial infection, called phage therapy, is under research. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and kill specific and can be used to treat bacterial infections because bacteriophages do not infect humans. Phage therapy was first recognized at beginning of 20th century but was overshadowed by discovery of Antibiotics. In addition to treating antibiotic - resistant bacteria, phage therapy targets specific bacteria, whereas antibiotics affect large range of bacteria, even normal, beneficial ones in digestive tract. Phage therapy is still experimental and is not yet approved by US Food and Drug Administration. Viruses, fungi, and parasites can develop to antibiotics too. Hiv develops resistance easily, so patients with HIV always take more than 1 type antiviral medication to reduce development of resistance. Candida auris is new pathogenic fungus that can be resistant to all antifungal medications. Malaria is example of parasite that has developed resistance to many antiparasitic medications, limiting public health efforts to control it globally. Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr reports receipt of grants and personal fees from Cepheid and grants from bioMerieux and Curetis. No other disclosures were report.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Types of infections

How infection spread and its effects on human body depends on type of pathogen. Immune System Is Effective Barrier Against Infectious Agents. However, pathogens may sometimes overwhelm immune systems ' ability to fight them off. At this infection becomes harmful. Some pathogens little effect at all. Others produce toxins or inflammatory substances that trigger negative responses from body. This variation means that some infections mild and barely noticeable, while others can be severe and life threatening. Some pathogens are to treatment. Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are types of pathogens. They vary in several ways, including: size, shape, function, genetic content, how they act on body. For example, viruses smaller than bacteria. They enter host and take over cells, whereas bacteria can survive without host. Treatment will depend on cause of infection. This article will focus on most common and deadly types of infection: bacterial, viral, fungal, and prion.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Causes of infection transmission

Germs can bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites and other organisms. Many kinds of germs normally live on skin, in intestines, or in environment. These germs do not cause problems in people with normal defenses and healthy immune systems. But if normal defense barriers and immune system are weak, germs can get into body, grow, and cause damage. These infections are often called opportunistic because germs use opportunity for patients to weaken defenses to cause illness. Knowing exact type of germ that is causing infection helps doctors choose best treatment. Different drugs are used to treat each of main types of germs - bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. And even among main types of germs, different types are treated different drugs. This means antibiotic that can kill one type of germ have no effect on another type of germ. And some germs become resistant to certain antibiotics, so sometimes more than one type of treatment is needed to kill germ that's causing infection. Lab tests identify what germs be causing your infection. Some lab tests can also tell doctor what medication your infection will best respond to. If you have symptoms that point to certain area of infection, samples will be taken to check for germs in that area. For example, sputum samples may be taken if you have cough or are short of breath. Urine samples may be taken if you have blood in urine or feel pain while passing urine. Sometimes, if person has very low white blood cell count and fever, blood and urine samples will be taken before other symptoms start. Your health care will let you know what lab tests you may need and what samples will need to be collect. Your doctor may use different tests different kinds of germs. You may hear your cancer care team mention gram stain test, viral antigen tests to test for viruses, or genetic tests that test for certain germs testing their genetic make - up. Common Test Used In Patients Who Have Very Low White Blood Cell Count And Fever Is Culture And Sensitivity Test. Culture is first, followed by sensitivity test. For culture, samples from suspect site of infection are collected and put in lab to grow. Sometimes, bacteria, and fungi may take at least few days before they can be see. Viruses may take few weeks to grow. Once enough germs have grow, are tested and identify. After bacteria fungi have been culture, sensitivity test may be done on cultured sample. This will help show best medication to kill germs causing certain infections.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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