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There are several types of breast cancer, and they are broken into two main categories: invasive and noninvasive, or in situ. While invasive cancer has spread from breast ducts or glands to other parts of the breast, noninvasive cancer has not spread from original tissue. These two categories are used to describe the most common types of breast cancer, which include: ductal carcinoma in situ. Ductal carcinoma in situ is a noninvasive condition. With DCIS, cancer cells are confined to ducts in your breast and have invade surrounding breast tissue. Lobular carcinoma in situ. Lobular carcinoma in situ is cancer that grows in the milk-producing glands of your breast. Like DCIS, cancer cells have invaded surrounding tissue. Invasive ductal carcinoma. Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer. This type of breast cancer begins in your breast milk ducts and then invades nearby tissue in your breast. Once breast cancer has spread to tissue outside your milk ducts, it can begin to spread to other nearby organs and tissue. Invasive lobular carcinoma. Invasive lobular carcinoma first develop in your breast lobules and has invaded nearby tissue. Paget disease of nipple. This type of breast cancer begins in ducts of the nipple, but as it grow, it begins to affect the skin and areola of the nipple. Phyllodes tumor. This very rare type of breast cancer grows in connective tissue of the breast. Most of these tumors are benign, but some are cancerous. Angiosarcoma. This is cancer that grows on blood vessels or lymph vessels in the breast. The type of cancer you have determines your treatment options, as well as your likely long-term outcome. Learn more about types of breast cancer.
|SEER Stage||5-year Relative Survival Rate|
Some breast cancers are more aggressive than others. But unlike some other cancers, type of Breast Cancer may not always determine how aggressive the disease is in individual patient. To determine how aggressive individual patients Breast Cancer may be, doctors will examine tumor, look at cancer cells under microscope and assign a grade from 1 to 3. Grade 3 cancers are considered the most aggressive. Cancers may be considered aggressive when their cells divide quickly, are clearly abnormal compared to other cells and / or have spread or are likely to spread to other parts of the body. Triple-negative Breast Cancer: this type of Breast Cancer tests negative for hormones estrogen and progesterone, and protein HER2. Inflammatory Breast Cancer: This rare form of cancer is named because it causes breast swelling and redness.
Cell receptors are special proteins found inside and on the surface of cells. These Receptor proteins are the eyes and ears of cells, receiving messages from substances in the bloodstream and then telling cells what to do. Hormone receptors inside and on the surface of healthy breast cells receive messages from hormones estrogen and progesterone. Hormones attach to receptors and provide instructions that help cells continue to grow and function well. Most, but not all, breast cancer cells also have these hormone receptors. Roughly two of three breast cancers test positive for one or both of these Hormone receptors. A smaller percentage of breast cancers, about 20%, make too much of HER2 protein. In normal, healthy breast cells, HER2 stimulates cell growth. When breast cancer cells have too much of HER2 protein, however, cells grow and divide too quickly. Hormonal therapies and HER2-targeted therapies disrupt the effects of estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 protein on breast cancer, which can help slow or even stop growth of breast cancer cells. About 10-20% of breast cancers test negative for both hormone receptors and excess HER2 in the lab, which means they are triple-negative. Since hormones are fueling cancer growth, cancer is unlikely to respond to hormonal therapy medicines, including tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors. Triple-negative breast cancer also is unlikely to respond to medicines that target HER2 protein, such as Enhertu, herceptin, kadcyla, nerlynx, perjeta, or Tykerb. Triple-negative breast cancer is considered to be more aggressive and have poorer prognosis than other types of breast cancer, mainly because there are fewer target medicines that treat triple-negative breast cancer. Studies have shown that triple-negative breast cancer is more likely to spread beyond the breast and more likely to recur after treatment. It tends to be higher grade than other types of breast cancer. Higher grade, less cancer cells resemble normal, healthy breast cells in their appearance and growth patterns. On scale of 1 to 3, triple-negative breast cancer often is grade 3. It is usually is cell type called basal-like. Basal-like means that cells resemble basal cells that line breast ducts. Basal-like cancers tend to be more aggressive, higher grade cancers just like triple-negative breast cancers. Most but not all basal-like breast cancers are triple negative, and most but not all triple-negative breast cancers are basal-like. Anyone can be diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer. Still, researchers have found that it is more common in: younger people. Triple-negative breast cancer is more likely to be diagnosed in people younger than age 50. Other types of breast cancer are more commonly diagnosed in people aged 60 or older. Black and Hispanic women. Triple-negative breast cancer is more likely to be diagnosed in black women and Hispanic women. Asian women and non-Hispanic white women are less likely to be diagnosed with this type of cancer. People with BRCA1 mutation.
Ductal carcinoma in situ is characterized by cancerous cells that are confined to the lining of milk ducts and have not spread through duct walls into surrounding breast tissue. If ductal carcinoma in situ lesions are left untreated, over time cancer cells may break through the duct and spread to nearby tissue, becoming invasive breast cancer. DCIS is the most common type of noninvasive breast cancer, with about 60 000 new cases diagnosed in the United States each year. About one in every five new breast cancer cases is ductal carcinoma in situ. DCIS is divided into several subtypes, mainly according to appearance of tumor. These subtypes include micropapillary, papillary, solid, cribriform and comedo. Women with ductal carcinoma in situ are typically at higher risk of seeing their cancer return after treatment, although the chance of recurrence is less than 30 percent. Most recurrences occur within five to 10 years after initial diagnosis and may be invasive or noninvasive. DCIS also carries heightened risk of developing new breast cancer in other breast. Recurrence of ductal carcinoma in situ will require additional treatment. The type of therapy selected may affect the likelihood of recurrence. Treating ductal carcinoma in situ with lumpectomy without radiation therapy carries a 25 percent to 35 percent chance of recurrence. Adding radiation therapy to treatment decreases this risk to approximately 15 percent. Currently, long-term survival rate for women with ductal carcinoma in situ is nearly 100 percent.
|Types of invasive breast cancer||Proportion of all invasive breast cancers||Tumor characteristics||Prognosis|
|Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC)||70-80%||Hard tumor texture Tumor is irregular, star-shaped Cell features vary DCIS often present||Prognosis varies with stage and grade of tumor|
|Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC)||10-15%||Normal, slightly firm or hard tumor texture Cells most often appear in single file order Tumors are most often ER-positive and HER2-negative||Prognosis varies with stage and grade of tumor For any given stage or grade, prognosis is similar to that of IDC Pattern of metastases is slightly different from IDC|
|Tubular carcinoma||1-5%||Tumors are most often small Often no palpable tumor Cells form tube-like structures Tumors are almost always ER-positive and HER2-negative||Prognosis is usually better than for IDC Rare for cancer to spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body|
|Mucinous (colloid) carcinoma||2%||Soft tumor Often no palpable tumor Cells are surrounded by excess mucous (mucin) Tumors are most often ER-positive and HER2-negative||More common among older women Tends to have a good prognosis Less common for cancer to spread to lymph nodes|
|Carcinomas with medullary features||Less than 1%||Soft tumor Cells have a sheet-like appearance Tumors are typically ER-negative, PR-negative and HER2-negative (often called triple negative)||More common among younger women and women with a BRCA1 gene mutation|
|Invasive papillary carcinoma||Less than 1%||Soft tumor Cells appear as fingerlike branches||More common in women after menopause Tends to have a good prognosis|
Breast Cancer type is determined by two factors: where cancer begins and whether or not it has spread. Most breast cancers start in breast ducts, which carry milk to nipples. Breast Cancer may also begin in breast lobules, glands that produce milk. No matter where breast cancer originates in the breast, it can spread to other areas of breast tissue, lymph nodes under the armpit, or even to other parts of the body. Once cancer cells spread outside the breast duct to nearby breast tissue, cancer is considered invasive. Cancers that remain within the duct are called noninvasive. Extent of cancer spread and grade of cancer determine breast cancer stage.
Within a large group of carcinomas, there are many different types of breast cancer. The first major division is between in situ and invasive carcinoma. In situ carcinoma is a pre-invasive carcinoma that has not yet invaded breast tissue. These in situ cancer cells grow inside of pre-exisiting normal lobules or ducts. In situ, carcinoma has significant potential to become an invasive cancer, and that is why it must be adequately treated to prevent patients from developing invasive cancer. Invasive cancers have cancer cells that infiltrate outside of normal breast lobules and ducts to grow into breast connective tissue. Invasive carcinomas have the potential to spread to other sites of the body, such as lymph nodes or other organs, in the form of metastases. Approximately 80% of breast carcinomas are invasive ductal carcinoma, followed by invasive lobular carcinomas which account for approximately 10-15% of cases. Invasive ductal carcinomas and invasive lobular carcinomas have distinct pathologic features. Specifically, lobular carcinomas grow as single cells arrange individually, in single file, or in sheets, and they have different molecular and genetic aberrations that distinguish them from ductal carcinomas. Ductal and lobular carcinomas may have different prognoses and treatment options, depending upon all of the other features of a particular cancer. Remaining cases of invasive carcinoma are comprised of other special types of breast cancer that are characterized by unique pathologic findings. These special types include colloid, medullary, micropapillary, papillary, and tubular. It is important to distinguish between these various subtypes, because they can have different prognoses and treatment implications.
Although lump in the breast is typically associated with breast cancer, much of the time such lumps arent cancer. According to Mayo Clinic, most are benign, or noncancerous. With fat necrosis, mass ca be distinguished from cancerous lump without biopsy. Even though the majority of breast lumps are caused by less severe conditions, new, painless lumps are still the most common symptom of breast cancer. Early on, woman may notice change in her breast when she performs monthly breast exam or minor abnormal pain that doesnt seem to go away. Early signs of breast Cancer include: Changes in shape of nipple breast Pain that doesnt go away after your next period new lump that doesnt go away after your next period Nipple discharge from one breast that is clear, red, brown, or Yellow unexplained Redness, Swelling, skin irritation, itchiness, or rash on breast Swelling or lump around collarbone or under arm lump that is hard with irregular edges is more likely to be cancerous. Retraction, or inward turning of nipple enlargement of One breast dimpling of breast surface existing lump that has bigger orange peel texture to Skin vaginal Pain unintentional weight Loss of lymph nodes in armpit visible veins on breast having One or more of these symptoms doesnt necessarily mean you have breast Cancer. Nipple discharge, for example, can also be caused by infection. See your doctor for complete evaluation if you experience any of these signs and symptoms.
|SEER Stage||5-year Relative Survival Rate|
|All SEER Stages||39%|
Inflammatory Breast Cancer is a rare but aggressive type of Breast Cancer. IBC make up only between 1 and 5 percent of all Breast Cancer cases. With this condition, cells block lymph nodes near breasts, so lymph vessels in the breast ca properly drain. Instead of creating tumor, IBC causes your breast to swell, look red, and feel very warm. Cancerous Breast may appear pit and thick, like orange peel. IBC can be very aggressive and can progress quickly. For this reason, it is important to call your doctor right away if you notice any symptoms. Find out more about IBC and the symptoms it can cause.
Breast Biopsy diagnosis may reveal that breast abnormality is benign, or non-cancerous. This is good news. Most benign breast lumps are caused by fibrocystic changes in the breast, which are a normal part of the menstrual cycle. These lumps generally consist of fluid-filled cysts form within breast tissue and do not increase your chance of getting breast cancer. Breast swelling and tenderness can be associated with fibrocystic changes. In addition, your breast may feel lumpy and occasionally present cloudy discharge from nipple. Fibroadenomas and intraductal papillomas are two other types of benign breast lumps and abnormalities. Fibroadenomas generally consist of smooth, rubbery or hard lumps that move easily within breast tissue. These abnormalities very rarely develop into breast cancer and are most commonly found in teenagers and African American women. Intraductal papillomas are wart-like lumps that form within the milk duct. They sometimes cause nipple discharge. Your doctor will advise you on the proper course of action regarding benign breast lump or abnormality. Occasionally, decision is made to remove cyst either through surgical or minimally invasive procedure. Regardless of this decision, you will want to continue to perform monthly breast self-exam and get annual breast exam and mammogram. Not all breast lumps are malignant. There is such thing as benign breast disease. The most prevalent, non-cancerous breast lumps are know as fibroadenomas. Fibroadenomas are usually solid, round, non-cancerous tumors that feel like marble within the breast. They can range in size from microscopic to several inches across and you or your doctor can feel them during breast exam. Fibroadenomas may require removal if they cause pain, continue to grow or change in shape. Many doctors recommend removing them to ensure they are not cancerous. Sometimes, new fibroadenomas may develop even after your doctor removes old ones. Fibroadenomas occur in about 10 percent of all women and account for about half of 1. 6 million breast biopsies doctors perform each year in the US. They are common among girls in their teens and women in their twenties and thirties, but may occur at any age. According to the National Institutes of Health, fibroadenomas occur twice as often in African-American women. Most women detect fibroadenomas during self-Breast examination or your doctor may detect them during clinical breast examination. Removing lump may be necessary. In the past, most fibroadenomas were removed using the Open surgical Biopsy method. Open surgical removal of fibroadenomas may involve removal of nearby breast tissue which can cause scarring and breast disfigurement. This method also requires stitches and incision 1 to 2 inches long. Nowadays, doctors can use the Mammotome Breast Biopsy device in management of fibroadenomas with minimal scarring, no stitches and immediate recovery. Using this method, incision is the size of match head and procedure may be performed in the doctor's office. Review chart below to see the differences between managing benign breast disease using Mammotome Breast Biopsy device versus Open Surgery.
Its important to discuss all of your treatment options, including their goals and possible side effects, with your doctors to help make a decision that best fits your needs. It is also very important to ask questions if there's anything youre not sure about. If time permit, it is often a good idea to seek a second opinion. Second opinion can give you more information and help you feel more confident about the treatment plan you choose. Clinical trials are carefully controlled research studies that are do to get a closer look at promising new treatments or procedures. Clinical trials are one way to get state-of-art cancer treatment. In some cases, they may be the only way to get access to newer treatments. They are also the best way for doctors to learn better methods to treat cancer. Still, they're not right for everyone. If you would like to learn more about clinical trials that might be right for you, start by asking your doctor if your clinic or hospital conducts clinical trials. You may hear about alternative or complementary methods that your doctor hasnt mentioned to treat your cancer or relieve symptoms. These methods can include vitamins, herbs, and special diets, or other methods such as acupuncture or massage, to name a few. Complementary methods refer to treatments that are used along with your regular medical care. Alternative treatments are used instead of doctors ' medical treatment. Although some of these methods might be helpful in relieving symptoms or helping you feel better, many have not been proven to work. Some might even be harmful. Be sure to talk to your cancer care team about any method you are thinking about using. They can help you learn what is know about method, which can help you make informed decision. People with Cancer need support and information, no matter what stage of illness they may be in. Knowing all of your options and finding resources you need will help you make informed decisions about your care. Whether you are thinking about treatment, getting treatment, or not being treated at all, you can still get supportive care to help with pain or other symptoms. Communicating with your cancer care team is important so you understand your diagnosis, what treatment is recommend, and ways to maintain or improve your quality of life. Different types of programs and support services may be helpful, and can be an important part of your care. These might include nursing or social work services, financial aid, nutritional advice, rehab, or spiritual help. The American Cancer Society also has programs and services-including rides to treatment, lodging, and more-to help you get through treatment. Call our National Cancer Information Center at 1-800-227-2345 and speak with one of our trained specialists. For some people, when treatments have been tried and are no longer controlling cancer, it could be time to weigh the benefits and risks of continuing to try new treatments.
Breast Cancer Healthline is a free App for people that have faced breast cancer diagnosis. The app is available on the App Store and Google Play. Download here. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. According to statistics from ACS, approximately 268 600 new cases of invasive breast Cancer are expected to be diagnosed in the United States in 2019. Invasive breast Cancer is a cancer that has spread from ducts or glands to other parts of the breast. More than 41 000 women are expected to die from the disease. Breast Cancer can also be diagnosed in men. ACS also estimate that in 2019, more than 2 600 men will be diagnose, and approximately 500 men will die from the disease. Find out more about breast cancer numbers around the world.
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