* If you want to update the article please login/register
Both colds and flu are contagious and are caused by viruses. However, viruses that cause colds are not the same as those that cause flu. Although the typical incubation period for Influenza is about one to four days, some adults can be contagious from about one day before onset of symptoms for up to two weeks. Other people who develop complications, such as pneumonia, may extend contagious period for week or two. For colds, most individuals become contagious about day before cold symptoms develop and remain contagious for about five to seven days. Some children may pass flu viruses for longer than seven days. Colds are considered upper respiratory infections. Flu may also cause lower respiratory infections. For both cold and flu, early symptoms may be similar. Symptoms and signs include cough, runny nose, and feeling tire. If you know you have had contact with someone with a cold or flu in the past few days, you should suspect you may have become infected. However, flu symptoms are generally more intense than cold symptoms. People with flu can develop fever, body aches, chills, and headaches, and some develop nausea and vomiting. Cold symptoms are much milder and usually do not require medical care. However, if you suspect you have the flu, you should seek medical care. Flu is often diagnosed with rapid tests available to most physicians. Common colds and flu are easily spread from person to person, Flu is most often by droplets produced by coughing and sneezing. Cold viruses in droplets are spread mainly hand to hand. These droplets contain infectious viruses. Occasionally, these droplets land on various surfaces and, depending on the survivability of virus type, can be transferred when an uninfected individual touches contaminated surface and subsequently touches his / her mouth or nose. In most instances, individuals with a cold will resolve their symptoms without medical intervention in about one week, although sometimes cough may last longer. However, at this point in time, cough is not spreading contagious virus. When cold symptoms and signs resolve, person is cure of cold. Flu is similar except that symptoms are more severe and, in some individuals, medical intervention may be require. However, depending upon influenza strain and severity of infection, some individuals may require hospitalization. A cure for these individuals occurs when symptoms resolve and the patient is discharged from hospital. Stomach flu is not caused by cold or by flu viruses. The term stomach flu is a nonspecific term that describes symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Although these symptoms may occur with the flu, flu is a respiratory infection. In most individuals with only stomach flu, causes are usually non - flu type viruses. Similarly, cold sores are not actually caused by cold viruses but by herpesviruses.
Bronchitis is inflammation of airways in the lung.S Acute bronchitis is is short in duration in comparison with chronic bronchitis, which lasts for months to years. Causes of acute bronchitis include viruses and bacteria, which means it can be contagious. Acute bronchitis caused by environmental factors such as pollution or cigarette smoke is not contagious. Common symptoms of acute bronchitis include nasal congestion, cough, headache, sore throat, muscle aches, and fatigue. Acute bronchitis in children also includes runny nose, fever, and chest pain. Treatment for acute bronchitis are OTC pain relievers, cough suppressants, and rest. Infrequently, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat acute bronchitis.
The medical definition of Acute bronchitis is cough lasting five or more days suggest Acute bronchitis as the cause. Sometimes people with recurrent acute bronchitis develop chronic bronchitis and / or respiratory infection. Bronchitis is inflammation of your bronchial tubes. The majority of people with acute bronchitis are contagious if the cause is an infectious agent such as virus or bacterium. A contagious period for both bacteria and viruses is usually as long as patient has symptoms, although for few viruses, then maybe contagious few days before symptoms appear. Contagious viruses that may cause Acute bronchitis are listed in the causes section. Tracheobronchitis may lead to lung infections. People usually are less likely to be contagious as symptoms wane. However, acute bronchitis caused by the immune system, exposure to pollutants, tobacco smoke, or other environmental chemicals or toxins that are bronchiole and / or lung irritants are not contagious. Coughing is the most common symptom of acute bronchitis. Coughing begins early in disease and usually lasts about 10 to 20 days as it gradually subside. About 50% of individuals have productive cough with either clear, yellow, greenish, or occasionally blood ting sputum. Consequently, signs and symptoms of Acute bronchitis may include: coughing, Productive cough, Mild shortness of breath, Sore throat, Nasal congestion, Headache Mild fever and chills, Chest discomfort, Muscle aches, Fatigue Wheezing If a person develops fever, shortness of breath, cyanosis or chest pain, they likely have another problem but not Acute bronchitis. The most common cause of acute bronchitis is viral. There is no bronchitis virus as many different types of viruses can cause bronchitis. The main genera of viruses that cause Acute bronchitis include: Influenza Parainfluenza RSV Rhinovirus Adenovirus Corona viruses. Many people develop mild symptoms of Acute bronchitis so often that the exact virus that causes infection is never determine. In addition, common cold may mimic Acute bronchitis flair - up. Bacteria are less common causes of acute bronchitis. Bacterial causes of disease include: mycoplasma Streptococcus Bordetella Moraxella Haemophilus Chlamydia pneumoniae other irritants may irritate bronchi and cause acute bronchitis. Consequently, bronchial or bronchitis infections are not the only cause of acute bronchitis. Risk factors for acute bronchitis are the same as those for getting viral and bacterial infections and two include: being in close contact with people that are coughing, sneezing, and touching items that infected people recently handle. People that are exposed to air pollution, tobacco smoke, and to chemicals that are aerosolize are at higher risk for acute bronchitis. Unfortunately, many people worldwide are at risk of getting this type of bronchitis. About 4. 6 out of 100 individuals may develop Acute bronchitis each year. The highest risks for disease are during winter months. Because acute bronchitis has many causes, is often self - limiting within 10 to 20 days and its main symptom is coughing, most doctors consider diagnosis after history and physical without additional tests.
There are two different types of bronchitis, acute and chronic. In most cases, acute bronchitis is caused by a virus. Chronic bronchitis is a type of chronic lung disease. People with chronic form of bronchitis can also get acute bronchitis by being exposed to viruses. Cough is a common symptom of both types. Person with acute bronchitis can be contagious as soon as symptoms first appear. In early stages, it is often difficult to determine whether a cough is caused by bronchitis or some other condition. As such, it is best for person to assume that they are contagious. Typically, people are most contagious during the early stages of illness.
Diagnosis of cold or upper respiratory infection is usually made by history and physical examination. Health care practitioners may ask questions with regard to onset and duration of symptoms. Physical examination may concentrate on the head, neck, and lungs. Examination of ears may reveal fluid behind ear drums, suggesting Eustachian tube swelling due to cold. Nasal examination may show clear discharge and throat examination may reveal some redness and post - nasal drip. If a health care practitioner suspects sinusitis, he / she may use their fingers to tap on the face in areas overlying large sinuses; forehead for frontal sinuses and cheeks for maxillary sinuses. The neck may be palpated or felt exploring swollen lymph nodes associated with infection. Lungs may be assessed with a stethoscope to listen for wheezing or crackling sounds, both signs of inflammation or infection. A few tests are required for diagnosis of upper respiratory infection.
A 37 - year - old male complains of a 4 - week history of coughing productive of greenish sputum. Symptoms initially start with nasal congestion and rhinorrhea, but those resolve after the first 7 days. He notes he has become increasingly dyspneic and short of breath. He has had some chills, but has not taken his temperature at home. He admits to smoking 1 pack per day since age 18, although he has not smoked at all in the last 3 days. He noted he had a similar illness about 6 months ago. On examination he was in no respiratory distress. Temperature 100. 5 Pulse ox 94% on room air. Hr 90. Lung examination reveals diffuse rhonchi and wheeze throughout both lung fields.
For upper respiratory infection to occur, virus enters the body, usually through the mouth or nose. Person may transmit it through touch, or by sneezing and coughing. Any place where people gather in enclosed space, such as a classroom, office, or home, can be a high - risk area for the spread of URIs. Typically, URI lasts anywhere between 3 and 14 days. In some cases, URIs can develop into more serious conditions, such as sinus infections or pneumonia. In this article, we look at how to identify URI, its potential causes, and available treatments.
Upper respiratory infections are highly contagious and can be spread by close contact with an infected person or by coughing and sneezing. Healthy hand hygiene through regular handwashing with soap and warm water is one of the most effective ways to prevent infections and the spread of germs. Respiratory infections can also be prevented by: avoiding contact with anyone who has upper respiratory infection; Regularly wiping down commonly touched surfaces, like doorknobs, with disinfectant wipes; Covering your mouth with tissue or inside of your elbow when coughing or sneezing; and not smoking or vaping. For more tips on preventing the common cold, see our blog here.
The Upper Respiratory tract includes sinuses, nasal passages, pharynx, and larynx. These structures direct air we breathe from outside to trachea and eventually to lungs for respiration to take place. Upper Respiratory tract infection, or upper respiratory infection, is an infectious process of any of components of the upper airway. Infection of specific areas of the upper Respiratory tract can be named specifically. Examples of these may include rhinitis, sinus infection - inflammation of sinuses located around the nose, common cold - inflammation of nares, pharynx, hypopharynx, uvula, and tonsils, pharyngitis, epiglottitis, laryngitis, laryngotracheitis, and tracheitis. Upper Respiratory infections are one of the most frequent causes of doctor visit with varying symptoms ranging from runny nose, sore throat, cough, to breathing difficulty, and lethargy. In the United States, upper respiratory infections are the most common illness leading to missing school or work. Although upper respiratory infections can happen at any time, they are most common in the fall and winter months, from September until March. This may be explained because these are usual school months when children and adolescents spend a lot of time in groups and inside closed doors. Furthermore, many viruses of upper respiratory infection thrive in the low humidity of winter. Urti is generally caused by direct invasion of the inner lining of upper airway by culprit virus or bacteria. In order for pathogens to invade the mucus membrane of upper airways, they have to fight through several physical and immunologic barriers. Hair on the lining of the nose acts as a physical barrier and can potentially trap invading organisms. Additionally, wet mucus inside nasal cavity can engulf viruses and bacteria that enter upper airways. There are also small hair - like structures that line the trachea which constantly move any foreign invaders up towards the pharynx to be eventually swallowed into the digestive tract and into the stomach. In addition to these intense physical barriers in the upper respiratory tract, immune system also does its part to fight invasion of pathogens or microbes entering upper airway. Adenoids and tonsils located in the upper respiratory tract are part of the immune system that helps fight infections. Through the actions of specialized cells, antibodies, and chemicals within these lymph nodes, invading microbes are engulf within them and are eventually destroy. Despite this defense process, invading viruses and bacteria adapt to various mechanisms to resist destruction. They can sometimes produce toxins to impair the body's defense system or change their shape or outer structural proteins to disguise them from being recognized by immune systems. Some bacteria may produce adhesion factors that allow them to stick to mucus membrane and hinder their destruction. It is also important to note that different pathogens have varying abilities to overcome the body's defense system and cause infections.
Plex.page is an Online Knowledge, where all the summaries are written by a machine. We aim to collect all the knowledge the World Wide Web has to offer.
© All rights reserved
2021 made by Algoritmi Vision Inc.
If you believe that any of the summaries on our website lead to misinformation, don't hesitate to contact us. We will immediately review it and remove the summaries if necessary.
If your domain is listed as one of the sources on any summary, you can consider participating in the "Online Knowledge" program, if you want to proceed, please follow these instructions to apply.
However, if you still want us to remove all links leading to your domain from Plex.page and never use your website as a source, please follow these instructions.