A vector, as related to molecular biology, is a DNA particle that is used as a vehicle to carry a certain DNA section into a host cell as part of a cloning or recombinant DNA method. A vector is a way to take a sequence of DNA, usually, and present it into another place. What vectors do is allow you to circulate the DNA you're interested in, in the organism you've picked to propagate it in. So if you can place the gene you're interested in into this plasmid, you can pick for the bacteria that have chosen up that plasmid by growing them on an antibiotic that, if they have not chosen it up, would kill them. There are yeast artificial chromosomes that allow very large fragments of DNA to be expanded in yeast cells. So vector is really just a way to take a piece of DNA that you're interested in and insert it, and pick for it, and determine it in the microorganism that you wish to propagate it in.
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