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Vitamins As Food Additives

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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Food Additives are substances that become part of food product when they are added during processing or making of that food. Add nutrients Help process or prepare food Keep products fresh Make food more appealing herbs or spices to add flavor to foods. Vinegar for pickling foods Salt, to preserve meats indirect Food Additives are substances that may be found in food during or after it is process. They were not used or placed in food on purpose. These additives are present in small amounts in the final product. Most concerns about food additives have to do with man - made ingredients that are added to foods. Some of these are: antibiotics given to food - producing animals, such as chickens and cows. Antioxidants in oily or fatty foods. Artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame, saccharin, sodium cyclamate, and sucralose Benzoic acid in fruit juices, Lecithin, gelatins, cornstarch, waxes, gums, and propylene glycol in Food stabilizers and emulsifiers Many different dyes and coloring substances Monosodium glutamate nitrates and nitrites in hot dogs and other process meat products Sulfites in beer, wine, and package vegetables United States Food and Drug Administration has list of Food Additives that are think to be safe. Many have not been test, but most scientists consider them safe. These substances are put on generally recognized safe list. This list contains about 700 items. Congress defines safe as reasonable certainty that no harm will result from use of additive. Examples of items on this list are: guar gum, sugar, salt, and vinegar. The list is reviewed regularly. Some substances that are found to be harmful to people or animals may still be allow, but only at level of 1 / 100 of the amount that is considered harmful. For their own protection, people with any allergies or food intolerances should always check the ingredient list on the label. Reactions to any additive can be mild or severe. For example, some people with asthma have worsening of their asthma after eating foods or drinks that contain Sulfites. It is important to keep gathering information about the safety of food additives. Report any reactions you have to Food or Food Additives to the FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Information about reporting reaction is available at www. Fda. Gov / AboutFDA / CentersOffices / OfficeofFoods / CFSAN / ContactCFSAN / default.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Processing agents


E number rangeDescriptionTypical additives and numbers
100-199ColoringsRed iron oxide (172); carotenes (160); yellow 2G (107).
200-299PreservativesPotassium sorbate (202); sodium sulfite (221); carbon dioxide (290).
300-399Antioxidants / acidity regulatorsTocopherols (307); lecithin (322); sodium phosphate (339).
400-499Thickeners, stabilizers, and emulsifiersCarrageenan (407); xanthan gum (415); sodium laurylsulphate (487).
500-599pH regulators / anti-caking agentsAluminum silicate (559); perlite (599).
600-699Flavor enhancersMonosodium glutamate (621); calcium guanylate (629).
700-799AntibioticsEmpty class - no currently approved additives.
900-999Glazing agents / sweetenersBeeswax (901); xylitol (967).

Nutritional Additives are used to restore vitamins and other nutritional qualities which may have been lost or degraded during processing. These additives are said to fortify or enrich food products;. For example, fortified salt contains added iodine to prevent iodine deficiency and goiter, while enriched flour, very common product found in cosmopolitan markets, is simply flour with additional B vitamins. Some foods contain nutritional additives which do not function as replacements for lost nutrients. For example, cereals, especially those marketed toward children, contain dozens of added vitamins and minerals to support healthy development. Common nutritional additives include: Vitamin - added to cereals and dairy products to prevent vision degeneration. B vitamins - added to flour, cereals, and pasta as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, and pyridoxine, among others; preserve skin health, digestion, and neurological functions. Vitamin C - added to sweets, dairy, cereals, and fruit products to prevent scurvy Vitamin D - added to dairy and cereals for bone and muscle health Minerals - calcium and iron Dietary fiber

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.


Additive functionDefinitionTypical additivesFood product
AnticakingPrevents sticking and the formation of lumps during packaging and transport.Sodium aluminosilicate, sodium ferrocyanide, calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate.Salts, flours, powders, egg mixes, dried dairy.
BleachingMakes food appear whiter.Chlorine (illegal in the EU), peroxides, azodicarbonamide.Flours.
ChelatingBonds with metal ions to prevent spoilage and promote color retention.Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA).Salad dressings, dried bananas, sauces, mayonnaise.
ClarifyingRemoves suspended solids from liquids.Proteins, sulphates, sodium silicate.Juices, wines.
EmulsifyingAllow oils/fats and water to remain mixed through processing.Soy lecithin, DATEM.Mayonnaise, ice cream, milk.
HumectantsPrevent foods from drying out.Propylene glycol, lactic acid, sugar polyols.Candies, chewing gum, marshmallows.
LeaveningCauses a foaming action which lightens and softens baked goods.Yeast, baking powder, baking soda.Baked goods.
pH controlStabilizes pH levels.Citric acid, lactic acid.Cheeses, jams/jellies, confections.
Stabilizers/thickenersHelps establish and maintain a firm texture.Pectin; gelatin; arabic, guar, and locust bean gums.Frozen confections, jams/jellies, dressings, puddings.
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

6 Food Additives To Avoid


Class of additiveFunctionExamples
Anti-caking agentsKeep powdered products (e.g. salt) flowing freely when pouredBentonite (558), Calcium aluminium silicate (556), Calcium silicate (552)
Anti-foaming agentsReduce or prevent foaming in foodsPolyethylene glycol 8000 (1521), Triethyl citrate (1505)
AntioxidantsRetard or prevent the oxidative deterioration of foodsButylated hydroxyanisole (320), Ascorbyl palmitate (304), Calcium ascorbate (302)
Artificial sweetenersImpart a sweet taste for fewer kilojoules/calories than sugarSorbitol (420), Alitame (956), Aspartame (951), Saccharin / calcium saccharin (954)
Bleaching agentsWhiten foodsChlorine (925), Chlorine dioxide (926), Benzoyl peroxide (928)
Bulking agentsIncreasing the bulk of a food without affecting its nutritional valueAmmonium chloride (510), Isomalt (953), Polydextrose (1200)
ColouringsAdd or restore colour to foodsCurcumin (110), Brilliant blue FCF (133), Tartrazine (102)
Colour retention agentsRetain or intensify the colour of a foodFerrous gluconate (579)
EmulsifiersPrevent oil and water mixtures separating into layersLecithin (322), Sorbitan monostearate (491), Ammonium salts of phosphatidic acids (442)
EnzymesBreak down foods (e.g. ferment milk into cheese)-amylase (1100), Lipases (1104), Proteases (papain, bromelain, ficin) (1101)
Firming agentsStrengthen the structure of the food and prevent its collapse during processingCalcium chloride (509), Calcium gluconate (578), Calcium sulphate (516)
Flavour enhancersImprove the flavour and/or aroma of a foodCalcium glutamate (623), Disodium 5-ribonucleotides (635), Ethyl maltol (637)
Food acidsMaintain a constant level of sourness in a foodAcetic acid (260), Citric acid (330), Fumaric acid (297)
Flour treatment agentsImprove flour performance in bread makingSodium metabisulphite (223), Ammonium chloride (510), Potassium bromate (924)
Glazing agentsImpart a shiny appearance or provide a protective coating to a foodBeeswax, white and yellow (901), Carnauba wax (903), Shellac (904)
Gelling agentsThicken and stabilize various foods (e.g. jellies, deserts and candies)Agar (406), Calcium alginate (404), Carrageenan (407)
HumectantsPrevent foods from drying out (e.g. dried fruits)Glycerin or glycerol (422), Lactitol (966), Oxidised polyethylene (914)
Mineral saltsImprove the texture of a food (e.g. processed meats)Cupric sulphate (519)
PreservativesProtect against deterioration caused by microorganismsSodium nitrate (251), Benzoic acid (210), Sodium benzoate (211)
PropellantsGases which help propel a food from a containerCarbon dioxide (290), Nitrogen (941), Nitrous oxide (942)
SequestrantsBind and remove unwanted minerals that cause oxidationPotassium gluconate (577)
StabilisersMaintain the uniform dispersion of substances in a foodXanthum gum (415), Guar gum (412), Bleached starch (1403)
ThickenersImprove texture and maintain uniform consistencyTannins (181), Sodium alginate (401), Pectins (440)
VitaminsRestore vitamins lost in processing and storageB vitamins, including niacin Vitamin C Vitamin E

Buy fresh or frozen. It's best to buy and serve fresh or frozen fruits and vegetables when possible. Eat fewer processed meats. Try to avoid processed meats, such as hot dogs, ham and meats in pre - package meals, especially during pregnancy. Wash plastic food containers and utensils by hand, rather than in the dishwasher. Heat can cause plastics to leak BPA and phthalates into food. Avoid microwaving food or beveragesincluding infant formula and breastmilk in plastic, if possible. Use glass and stainless steel. Especially when cooking or serving hot foods, use alternatives to plastic, such as glass or stainless steel, when possible. Learn plastic recycling codes. Look at the recycling code on the bottom of products to find the plastic type. Try to avoid plastics with recycling codes 3, 6, and 7 unless plastics are labelled as biobased or greenware, which means they are made from corn and do not contain bisphenols. Wash your hands. Because chemicals from plastics are so common in items we touch throughout the day, be sure to wash your hands thoroughly before and after handling food. Speak out. Join AAP and other organizations calling for more research into food additives safety, including improvements to the US Food additive regulatory Program and retesting some previously approved additives. A recent review of nearly 4 000 Food Additives shows that 64% of them had had no research showing they were safe for people to eat or drink. While some changes to current law could be achieved by FDA, some may require congressional action.


Thickening, gelling, and stabilizing agent: Dairy and non - Dairy products, including ice cream, sorbet, frozen desserts, chocolate milk, soy milk, almond milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, whipped cream; jelly, infant formula, salad dressings, deli meat, frozen dinners. Carrageenan is a family of indigestible large molecules obtained from certain seaweed. It is used as a thickening or texturing agent in a wide variety of foods and beverages. Large amounts of carrageenan have harmed test animals colons. Amounts in food are too small to be a concern for most people, but an independent committee of the World Health Organization concluded that it is unclear whether people with episodes of gastrointestinal disease might absorb some carrageenan, which presumably could cause gastrointestinal or immune system problems. Some people have reported that eliminating carrageenan from their diet diminishes or eliminates their gastrointestinal discomfort. Carrageenanat, least in its natural, undegraded formdoes not cause cancer in animals. In animal studies, high doses of carrageenan increased potency of chemicals that cause cancer, and there has been controversy over whether it could do so at low levels that people consume. The Fda and WHO committee have concluded that food - grade carrageenan does not pose either direct or indirect cancer risk. Food - grade carrageenan contains small amounts of degraded carrageenan, and bit more probably forms in acidic conditions of stomach. The International Agency for Research on Cancer, another unit of WHO, considers degraded carrageenan to be possibly carcinogenic in humans. While any possible cancer risk would be quite small, some people may wish to err on the side of caution and avoid carrageenan. Some experts have been concerned about the safety of carrageenan for infants, given that the GI tract of infants is still developing. In 2014, however, WHO committee reviewed new animal studies and concluded that infant formula made with carrageenan is safe.

Artificial Sweeteners

Artificial sweeteners are used in many diet foods and beverages to enhance sweetness while reducing calorie content. Common types of artificial sweeteners include aspartame, sucralose, saccharin and acesulfame potassium. Studies show that artificial sweeteners can aid in weight loss and help manage blood sugar levels. One study found that people who consumed supplements containing artificial sweeteners for 10 weeks had a lower intake of calories and gained less body fat and weight than those consuming regular sugar. Another study showed that consuming sucralose for three months had no effect on blood sugar control in 128 people with diabetes. Note that certain types of artificial sweeteners like aspartame may cause headaches in some people, and studies show that certain individuals may be more sensitive to its effects. Still, artificial sweeteners are generally considered safe for most people when consumed in moderation. However, if you experience any negative side effects after using artificial sweeteners, check ingredients labels carefully and limit your intake.

1. Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)

Msg is naturally created from a chemical called glutamate and looks similar to sugar or salt. It can enhance the flavor of savory dishes and is usually found in Chinese food and fast food. Msg has get bad rap for years, with numerous claims in the late 1960s alleging that food prepared with MSG at Chinese restaurants made people sick;. However, many studies report difficulty in finding concrete evidence that there is a problem with MSG. At the same time, some reports have indicated numerous reactions such as headaches, flushing, sweating, facial pressure or tightness, numbness, tingling or burning in the face, neck and other areas, rapid, heart palpitations, chest pain, nausea, and weakness. While the jury is still out as to how harmful MSG truly is, it is probably best to limit how much you consume. The easiest way to do that is by limiting processed meats, fast food, and Chinese takeout.

2. Artificial Food Coloring

Blue 1: increased risk of cancer. Used in candy, soda, frosting, and other bakery products. Also call: Indigotine, Indigo carmine, CI Food Blue 1, Brilliant Blue FCF, FD & C Blue No. 1. Blue 2: Increases your risk for brain tumors. Use in candy. Also call: FD & C Blue No. 2, Indigotine, Indigo carmine. Brown HT: increases your risk for cancer. It can cause hyperactivity. Increases the risk of asthma. Find in package foods. Also call: Chocolate Brown HT, Food Brown 3. Caramel coloring: When mixed with ammonia, it increases the risk for cancer. Find in sodas, bread, pastries, and more. Also call: Caramel, Plain Caramel, Caustic Caramel, Spirit Caramel, Caramel Color II, Caramel Color III, Caramel Color IV. Citrus Red 1: Increases your risk of cancer. Colorant used to make oranges look ripe. Citrus Red 2: Increases your risk of cancer. Colorant used to make oranges look ripe. Also call: Citrus Red No. 2, CI Solvent Red 80. Green 3: Increases your risk for bladder cancer. Find in drinks and candies. Also call: FD & C Green No. 3, Fast Green FCF, CI Food Green 3. Yellow 5: Increases your risk for kidney cancer and kidney tumors. Find in candy, desserts, and pet food. Also call: FD & C Yellow 5, Tartrazine, CI Food Yellow 4. Yellow 6: Increases your risk for kidney cancer. Find candy and desserts. Also call: FD & C Yellow 6, Sunset Yellow, CI Food Yellow 3. Red 2: Increases your risk for cancer and asthma. Find in package foods. Also call: Amaranth, FD & C Red No. 2, CI Food Red 9, Acid Red 27, Azorubin S, Red azo dye. Red 3: known carcinogen. Increase your risk of thyroid cancer and nerve damage. Find in package foods. Also call: FD & C Red 3, Erythrosine, CI Food Red 14. Red 40: Increases your risk for cancer and can cause hyperactivity in children. Ban in most EU countries. Find in candies, packaged foods, drinks, and more. Also call: FD & C Red 40, Allura Red, CI Food Red 17. Orange B: Increases issues with liver and bile duct. Find in sausage casings. Also call: CI Acid Orange 137. Bixin: Increases cases of asthma and can cause hyperactivity in children. Find in package food products. Oil - soluble form of annatto. Norbixin: Increases cases of asthma and can cause hyperactivity in children. Find in package food products. Water - soluble form of annatto. Annatto: Increases cases of asthma and can cause hyperactivity in children. Find in package food products.

3. Sodium Nitrite

Frequently found in processed meats, sodium nitrite acts as a preservative to prevent growth of bacteria while also adding a salty flavor and reddish - pink color. When exposed to high heat and in the presence of amino acids, nitrites can turn into nitrosamine, compound that can have many negative effects on health. One review show that higher intake of nitrites and nitrosamine was associated with a higher risk of stomach cancer. Many other studies have found similar association,s reporting that higher intake of processed meats may be linked to higher risk of colorectal, breast and bladder cancer. Other studies suggest that nitrosamine exposure may also be linked to higher incidence of type 1 diabetes, although findings are inconsistent. Still, it is best to keep your intake of sodium nitrite and processed meats to a minimum. Try swapping out processed meats like bacon, sausage, hot dogs and ham for unprocessed meat and healthy sources of protein. Chicken, beef, fish, pork, legumes, nuts, eggs and tempeh are just a few delicious high - protein foods that you can add to your diet in place of processed meats.

5. High-Fructose Corn Syrup

High - fructose corn syrup is a sweetener made from corn. It is frequently found in soda, juice, candy, breakfast cereals and snack foods. It is rich in a type of simple sugar called fructose, which can cause serious health issues when consumed in high amounts. In particular, high - fructose corn syrup has been linked to weight gain and diabetes. In one study, 32 people consumed drinks sweetened with either glucose or fructose for 10 weeks. By the end of the study, fructose - sweetened beverages cause significant increases in belly fat and blood sugar levels, plus decreased insulin sensitivity compared to glucose - sweetened beverage. Test - tube and animal studies have also found that fructose can trigger inflammation in cells. Inflammation is believed to play a central role in many chronic conditions, including heart disease, cancer and diabetes. Additionally, high - fructose corn syrup contributes empty calories and adds sugar to foods without any of the important vitamins and minerals that your body need.Sss It best to skip sugary snacks and foods that contain high - fructose corn syrup. Instead, go for whole, unprocessed foods without added sugar, and sweeten them up with Stevia, yacon syrup or fresh fruit.

8. Sodium Benzoate

Sodium benzoate is a preservative often added to carbonated drinks and acidic foods like salad dressings, pickles, fruit juices and condiments. It has been generally recognized as safe by the FDA, but several studies have uncovered potential side effects that should be consider. For example, one study found that combining sodium benzoate with artificial food coloring increased hyperactivity in 3 - year - old children. Another study showed that higher intake of beverages containing sodium benzoate was associated with more symptoms of ADHD in 475 college students. When combined with vitamin C, sodium benzoate can also be converted into benzene, compound that may be associated with cancer development. Carbonate beverages contain the highest concentration of benzene, and diet or sugar - free beverages are even more prone to benzene formation. One study analyzing concentration of benzene in a variety of foods found cola and cole slaw samples with over 100 ppb of benzene, which is over 20 times the maximum contaminant level set by EPA for drinking water. To minimize your intake of sodium benzoate, check labels of your food carefully. Avoid foods that contain ingredients like benzoic acid, benzene or benzoate, especially if combined with source of vitamin C such as citric acid or ascorbic acid.

9. Trans Fat

Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat that has undergone hydrogenation, which increases shelf life and improves consistency of products. It can be found in many types of processed foods like baked goods, margarine, microwave popcorn and biscuits. A number of potential health risks have been associated with trans fat intake, and the FDA even recently decided to revoke their GRAS status. In particular, multiple studies have linked higher intake of trans fats to higher risk of heart disease. One study found that eating foods high in trans fats increases several markers of inflammation, which is one of the major risk factors for heart disease. Research also shows there may be a connection between trans fats and diabetes. A large study with 84 941 women even showed that a high intake of trans fat was associated with a 40% higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Cutting processed foods out of your diet is the easiest and most effective way to decrease your trans fat intake. You can also make a few simple switches in your diet, like using butter instead of margarine and swapping out vegetable oils for olive oil or coconut oil instead.

10. Xanthan Gum

Xanthan gum is made through a complex process involving bacteria that live on plants like corn. The result is gummy products that can then be dry, powder, and stocked on supermarket shelves. Youll find it in any food product that needs little texturizing and binding. It is a very common ingredient in gluten - free baking because it adds that extra something that makes it texturally more like wheat - base products. It is a newer product, so there are no long - term studies to say that it is bad or good. But so far it seems to be okay. It can cause some digestive upset in some people though, so if you notice any symptoms, discontinue use right away. Additionally, if youre allergic to corn or wheat, you might have severe allergic reactions to it. In baking, you can replace it with Guar gum, chia seeds, and psyllium husk for a similar gluten - free textural effect.

12. Yeast Extract

Yeast extract, also called autolyzed yeast extract or hydrolyze yeast extract, is added to certain savory foods like cheese, soy sauce and salty snacks to boost flavor. It is made by combining sugar and yeast in a warm environment, then spinning it in a centrifuge and discarding cell walls of yeast. Yeast extract contains GLUTAMATE, which is a type of naturally occurring amino acid found in many foods. Much like MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE, eating foods with GLUTAMATE may cause mild symptoms like headaches, numbness and swelling in people who are sensitive to its effects. Additionally, yeast extract is relatively high in sodium, with about 400 milligrams in each teaspoon. Reducing sodium intake has been shown to help decrease blood pressure, especially in people who have high blood pressure. However, most foods only contain a small amount of added yeast extract, so GLUTAMATE and sodium in yeast extract are unlikely to cause much of a problem for most people. As of 2017, yeast extract is still recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration. If you do experience negative effects, consider limiting your intake of processed foods with yeast extract and adding more fresh, whole foods to your diet.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

How To Avoid These Frankenfoods

According to Mother Jones, at least 70 percent of processed foods in the United States contain GMOs where they are banned or restrict: Algeria, Thailand, Sri Lanka, European Union, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, Paraguay, Australia, New Zealand genetically modified foods are pretty scary, given their relative short time in food supply. Gm Foods was even around until 1996. Now, thanks in large part to patents chemical giant Monsanto has placed on seeds, it is becoming increasingly difficult for American farmers to keep GMOs out of their crops. According to a 2009 article in Critical Review of Food Sciences in Nutrition, GMOs may have a number of potential health risks, including: kidney and liver issues, Pancreatic problems, Reproductive affects Severe allergic reactions, Cancer Reactivation of viruses DNA damage or alteration. Fda continues to allow these ingredients in our processed food supply in spite of very real health concerns. There is some scary stuff out there, and you have to be your own health advocate. Avoid processed foods, and when you do eat them, read labels carefully. If there is an ingredient you do recognize, find something else to eat. In Beauty Detox Solution and Glowing Lean System, I teach you how to eat for vibrant good health, avoiding potentially toxic ingredients. Lets partner together to raise our consciousness between our diet and our overall health and well - being! Changing your diet will improve all aspects of your life.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions


* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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