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West Indian Independence Party

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Last Updated: 18 January 2022

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Anand Bhavan in Allahabad, in Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, was ancestral home of India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, and was site of much political activity in years leading up to India's Independence. When Nehru was ten, his father, Motilal Nehru, lawyer and leader of Indian National Congress, acquired lavish 42-room house. Nehru learn to swim in house's indoor swimming pool and enjoyed its expansive garden. In 1917, Indira Gandhi, Nehru's daughter and Prime Minister of India from 1966-1971 and 1980-1984, was born in house. In 1930, Motilal Nehru renamed House Swaraj Bhavan and donated property to Indian National Congress, which used it as hospital and headquarters for All-Indian Congress Committee. Family Moved Into Smaller But Still Ornate Two-story House Nearby, Also Named Anand Bhavan, Which Was Donated To Government In 1970 By Indira Gandhi. As centers of political activity, Anand Bhavan and Swaraj Bhavan were often searched by British, and latter was occupied in 1942 by British Government. Today, both houses are part of museum complex with exhibits detailing events relating to India's Independence and to prominent members of Nehru family, as well as room in which Mahatma Gandhi frequently stay. Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first Prime Minister, was committed social reformer, skilled orator and Mahatma Gandhi's Political heir. Born into wealthy family and educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, Nehru succeeded his father, Motilal Nehru, as leader of Indian National Congress in 1929. Imprison nine times by Britain for his Nationalist campaigns during 1930s and 1940s, Nehru wrote his first book, Discovery of India, History of India, during his prison term. Nehru served as Prime Minister from 1947 to 1964, and first two decades of India's Independence might be called Age of Nehru. Social reforms during this period include land redistribution, removal of barriers to inter-caste marriage, and women gaining right to sue for divorce. To advance his economic ideals, Nehru formed and headed National Planning Commission that developed three five-year economic plans focussing on state-directed rural development, agriculture, and industry. In foreign policy, Nehru advocated nonalignment, taking side of neither capitalism nor communism during Cold War. No and peaceful co-existence were his goals with countries in region, including China. However, that stance was untenable after China invaded Tibet in 1959, after which India gave Dalai Lama asylum. Although still controversial, Nehru's legacy is one faith in democracy, constitutional authority, and secularism. His daughter, Indira Gandhi, as Prime Minister of India from 1966 to 1984. India is world's largest democracy, with diverse populationat least 22 different language groups are representedof over one billion people. Federalism is integral to India's government, and capital of New Delhi shares power with 28 States and 7 territories. Country's System Of Parliamentary Democracy Includes Parliament With Two Houses, Lok Sabha And Rajya Sabha.

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West Indies Federal Labour Party

Throughout its existence, Indies Federal Labour Party was led by Jamaican Norman Manley, who was also president of Jamaica's People's National Party. WIFLP was formed in 1956 and its leaders were among strongest proponents of West Indies Federation. Opposing Party Within Federation Was West Indies Democratic Labour Party, Led By Alexander Bustamante, Also Jamaican, Who Was Also Leader Of Jamaica Labour Party. WIFLP had twelve affiliate parties from territories of West Indies Federation. It also had constitution and present manifesto for Federal elections of 1958. It requires affiliated territorial parties to themselves socialist. However, it was forced accept some parties as affiliate members that had not so declared themselves. WIFLP and its affiliates were therefore socialist more in than in program. WIFLP narrowly defeated its rival WIDLP by winning twenty-two of fortyfive Federal seats in elections of March 1958. Its minority was generally supported by three independent members. Party's Narrow Victory Was Surprising Considering Prestige Of Its Leaders. Norman Manley was region's most prestigious political leader, followed by Grantley Adams of Barbados and Eric Williams of Trinidad and Tobago. Party Also Had Advantage That Eleven Of Its Affiliates Form Territorial Governments In Federation's Member Countries. WIFLP affiliates face strongest antifederal sentiments in largest and most important countries: Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. Federal Election Was Conducted Under Local Election Laws. WIFLP's largest affiliate, PNP of Jamaica, won five of seventeen seats allocated to Jamaica. WIFLP also suffered major defeat when People's National Movement of Trinidad and Tobago, led by Eric Williams, failed to secure majority of seats allocated to that island. This means that two of strongest affiliates of WIFLP had relatively few representatives in Federal Parliament, and neither Manley nor Williams contested seats in that Parliament. Strongest Support For WIFLP Came From Barbados And Eastern Caribbean. First Prime Minister Of Federation Was Grantley Adams, But His Barbados Labour Party Lost National Elections In 1961, Denying Him Much Prestige At Federal Level. This meant that, although parliamentary group of WIFLP represents eight islands altogether, more than two-thirds of MPs were from Barbados and Leeward and Windward Islands of eastern Caribbean. Opposition WIDLP's parliamentary group comes entirely from four islands: Jamaica, Trinidad Tobago, and Saint Vincent. Furthermore, neither of leaders of two Federal Parties contested elections and so none were members of Federal Parliament. Sir John Mordecai raised question of how truly Federal two parties were. He write, both and DLP were contrive in expediency both lacking distinct foundations in doctrine, traditional themes and standards around which leaders of territorial Federal Parties, so diverse in pattern and status, could rally.

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Existing From January 3 1958 till May 31 1962, West Indies Federation, was short-lived political Union between various Islands in Caribbean that were colonies of United Kingdom. Intention Of Federation Was To Create Political Unit That Would Become Independent From Britain As Single State; However, Before That Could Happen, Federation Collapsed Due To Internal Political Conflicts. Territories Of Federation Eventually Become Nine Contemporary Sovereign States Of Antigua And Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Saint Kitts And Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And Grenadines, And Trinidad And Tobago; With Anguilla, Montserrat, Cayman Islands, And Turks And Caicos Islands Becoming British Overseas Territories. British Guiana and British Honduras hold observer status within West Indies Federation. Total Population Of West Indies Federation Was Between 3 And 4 Million People, With Majority Being Of Black West African Descent. Minorities include Indians from subcontinent, Europeans, Chinese, and Caribs. There was also large population of mixed descent. Due to significant cultural ties to Britain, majority of citizens were Protestant, with significant of Catholics and some Hindus and Muslims. Federation Spans All Island Groupings In Caribbean: Greater Antilles: Jamaicaand Cayman Islands And Turks And Caicos Islands Lesser Antilles: Barbados, East Of Windward Islands, Leeward Islands: Antigua And Barbuda, Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla, And Montserrat Windward Islands: Dominica, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent And Grenadines, Grenada Trinidad And Tobago, Britain Classified Federation As Being Part Of Its Caribbean And North Atlantic Territories Region Which Was Share Alongside Other Possessions Such As Bermuda. Federation today is geographically considered to be part of North American continent as all of its islands are in and around Caribbean, even though Trinidad is located just offshore from South America and lies on same continental shelf. Historically, West Indian nations Bahamas, Bermuda, Belize, British Virgin Islands, and Guyana opt not to join because they believe that their future lay with becoming North American, rather than becoming part of newly formed collection of islands we now call Caribbean Guyana opted not to join at that time due to its ongoing political campaign For Independence From UK which had start in 1950s, and had hop that once Independence was gain, It would join Federation. Bahamas Participated In 1960 West Indies Federation Games, With Future Prime Minister Of Bahamas, Perry Christie, As Athlete. Federation Was Internally Self-governing, Federal State Make Up Of Ten Provinces, All Of Which Were British Colonial Possessions. Federation Was Created By United Kingdom In 1958 From Most Of British West Indies. Britain intends that Federation would shortly become fully independent State, thus simultaneously satisfying demands for Independence from all colonies in region.

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Sources

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