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Works About Diseases And Disorders

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

The straightforward way to assess the health status of the population is to focus on mortality-or concepts like child mortality or life expectancy, which are based on mortality estimates. Focus on mortality, however, does not take into account that the burden of diseases is not only that they kill people, but that they cause suffering for people WHO live with them. Assessing health outcomes by both mortality and morbidity provides a more encompassing view on health outcomes. This is the topic of this entry. The sum of mortality and morbidity is referred to as Burden of Disease and can be measured by metric called Disability adjusted Life Years. DALYs are measures lose health and are standardized metrics that allow for direct comparisons of disease burdens of different diseases across countries, between different populations, and over time. Conceptually, one DALY is the equivalent of losing one year in good health because of either premature death or disease or disability. One DALY represents one lost year of healthy life. The First Global Burden of Disease was GBD 1990 and the DALY metric was prominently featured in World Banks ' 1993 World Development Report. Today it is published by researchers at the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation and Disease Burden Unit at the World Health Organization, which was created in 1998. IHME continues work that was started in the early 1990s and publishes the Global Burden of Disease study. This entry presents Data on the Burden of Health across the World, breakdown by age, types of disability and disease, and regional / country breakdowns. Visualizations which follow can be explored by any country or region using the Change country option in the charts below. Human potential that is lost due to poor health is immense: Global Burden of Disease project aims to quantify this loss by estimating the number of healthy life years lost globally. This metric takes into account both, human life years lost due to early death and life years compromised by disease and disability. It is a massive study that takes into account thousands of datasets to capture the burden of diseases globally. 55. 9 million people die in 2017. If we sum up all life years lost due to premature death-sum of differences between each person's age of death and their life expectancy at that age-we find that the world population lost 1. 65 billion years of potential life due to premature death in that year. Disease and Disability meant that an additional 853 million years of healthy life years were lose. 1 it is hard to get a sense of the scale of these enormous numbers. One way to illustrate it is to put it in relation to the global population, which was 7. 53 billion in that year. The Global Burden of Disease, viewed in this way, sums up up to a third of the year lost for each person on the planet. 2 this map shows DALYs per 100 000 people of the population.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Definitions and regulations

Productive activities healthy relationships Ability to adapt to change and cope with adversity refers collectively to all diagnosable mental disorders health conditions involving significant changes in thinking, emotion and / or behavior Distress and / or problems functioning in social, work or family activities mental health is foundation for emotions, thinking, communication, learning, resilience and self-esteem. Mental health is also key to relationships, personal and emotional well-being and contributing to community or society. Many people who have mental illness do not want to talk about it. But mental illness is nothing to be ashamed of! It is a medical condition, just like heart disease or diabetes. And mental health conditions are treatable. We are continually expanding our understanding of how the human brain works, and treatments are available to help people successfully manage mental health conditions. Mental illnesses do not discriminate; they can affect anyone regardless of your age, gender, geography, income, social status, race / ethnicity, religion / spirituality, sexual orientation, background or other aspect of cultural identity. While mental illness can occur at any age, three-fourths of all mental illness begins by age 24. Mental illnesses take many forms. Some are mild and only interfere in limited ways with daily life, such as certain phobias. Other mental health conditions are so severe that person may need care in hospital. Mental health conditions are treatable and improvement is possible. Many people with mental health conditions return to full functioning. Some mental illnesses are preventable. It is not always clear when a problem with mood or thinking has become serious enough to be a mental health concern. Sometimes, for example, depressed mood is normal, such as when a person experiences the loss of a loved one. But if that depressed mood continues to cause distress or gets in the way of normal functioning, person may benefit from professional care. Family or friends may recognize changes or problems that person do see in themselves. Some mental illnesses can be related to or mimic medical condition. For example, depressive symptoms can be related to thyroid condition. Therefore, mental health diagnosis typically involves full evaluation including a physical exam. This may include blood work and / or neurological tests. People of diverse cultures and backgrounds may express mental health conditions differently. For example, some are more likely to come to health care professional with complaints of physical symptoms that are caused by mental health condition. Some cultures view and describe mental health conditions in different ways from most doctors in the US. The stigma around mental illness and treatment prevents many people from seeking needed treatment. Diagnosis of mental disorder is not the same as need for treatment. The need for treatment takes into consideration how severe symptoms are, how much symptoms cause distress and affect daily living, risks and benefits of available treatments and other factors. Mental health treatment is based upon individualized plans developed collaboratively with mental health clinicians and individual. It may include psychotherapy, medication or other treatments.


Symptoms

Depending on age and type of mood disorder, person may have different symptoms of depression. The following are the most common symptoms of mood disorder: ongoing sad, anxious, or empty mood Feeling hopeless or helpless Having low self-esteem Feeling inadequate or worthless Excessive guilt Repeating thoughts of death or suicide, wishing to die, or attempting suicide, loss of interest in usual activities or activities that were once enjoy, including sex Relationship problems Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much Changes in appetite and / or weight decrease energy Trouble concentrating decrease in ability to make decisions Frequent physical complaints that dont get better with treatment Running away or threats of Running away from home Very sensitive to failure or rejection Irritability, hostility, or aggression in mood disorders, these feelings are more intense than what person may normally feel from time to time. Its also of concern if these feelings continue over time, or interfere with one's interest in family, friends, community, or work. Any person who expresses thoughts of suicide should get medical help right away. Symptoms of mood disorders may look like other conditions or mental health problems. Always talk with healthcare provider for diagnosis.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What causes diseases at work?

Occupational skin exposure is the second most common cause of occupational disorders, with a rate of 2. 3 injuries per 10 000 workers. 2 More than 13 million US workers annually are potentially exposed to chemicals absorbed through skin. 29 Most recently, decrease in incidence of occupational dermatitis has been reported in 10 European countries. 30 following discussion focus on Occupational contact dermatitis because it accounts for 90 % to 95 % of Occupational skin disorders. 6 7 29 31 32 Table 3 lists Occupational skin disorders and associated occupations. 6-8 29 31-33 Occupational contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant and allergic types. Irritant contact dermatitis is inflammation due to phototoxic reactions or skin contact with chemical agents such as acids, bases, oxidizing or reducing agents, water, detergents, and cleaning agents. Exposure to wet work accounts for 68 % of Occupational contact dermatitis cases. 29 Allergic contact dermatitis is caused by allergic skin reaction. Common causes include metals, epoxy, acrylic resins, rubber additives, agrochemicals, and commercial chemicals. Nickel exposure occurs in many occupations with the use of stainless steel, magnets, metal plating, coinage, and certain alloys. Some substances can produce both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Differentiating Occupational from nonoccupational contact dermatitis relies on careful Occupational history. Irritant and Allergic contact dermatitis can have similar presentations. The Validate scoring tool for severity of irritant contact dermatitis has been developed using clinical findings of erythema, desquamation, crack skin, and amount of skin affect. 8 There is some genetic disposition for irritant contact dermatitis in patients with filaggrin mutation, history of adult atopic dermatitis, or nickel sensitivity. Patients with both filaggrin mutation and atopic dermatitis have the highest risk of developing irritant contact dermatitis. 6 31 33 Patch testing can help identify Allergic contact dermatitis and should be considered when occupational contact dermatitis has not improved after three months of Treatment and contact allergy is suspect. 6 7 Occupational contact dermatitis can develop at any point during a person's career 7 and has a variable clinical course: one-third of patients have resolution of skin symptoms, one-third have partial improvement but persistence of symptoms, one-fourth have no change, and few experience worsening of symptoms. 34 However, quality of life and daily function are affected by nearly 50 % of workers with Occupational contact dermatitis. 32 33 Prevention programs are vital for treatment of Occupational contact dermatitis and should be used in conjunction with the hierarchy of controls 10. Although prevention recommendations are generally support, proving significant clinical outcomes has been difficult. 31 Routine application of fragrance-free postwork creams can help prevent dermatitis, but application of prework creams is generally not helpful and may lead to complacency in other, more beneficial preventive measures. 6 7 9 31 33 Treatment is similar to that of nonoccupational contact dermatitis, relying heavily on topical steroids. Physicians should provide patient education on how to reduce hazard exposure. Patients should be referred when appropriate therapy fails, causative agent cannot be identify, or diagnosis is unclear.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Latest Numbers

Clinical Trials are research studies that look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat diseases and conditions, including eating disorders. During Clinical Trials, treatments might be new drugs or new combinations of drugs, new surgical procedures or devices, or new ways to use existing treatments. The goal of Clinical Trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe. Although individual participants may benefit from being part of a clinical trial, participants should be aware that the primary purpose of clinical trial is to gain new scientific knowledge so that others may be better help in future. Please Note: decisions on whether to apply for clinical trial and which ones are best suited for give individual are best made in collaboration with your licensed health professional. Scientists at NIMH campus conduct research on numerous areas of study, including cognition, genetics, epidemiology, and psychiatry. Studies take place at NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland and require regular visits. After the initial phone interview, you will come to appointment at the clinic and meet with the clinician. Visit NIMH Clinical Trials Participants or Join Study pages for more information. To find clinical trial near you, you can visit clinicaltrials. Gov. This is a searchable registry and results database of federally and privately supported Clinical Trials conducted in the United States and around the world. Clinicaltrials. Gov give you information about the trial's purpose, WHO may participate, locations, and phone numbers for more details. This information should be used in conjunction with advice from health professionals.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Physical Health

People with disabilities often are at greater risk of health problems that can be prevent. As a result of having a specific type of disability, such as spinal cord injury, spina bifida, or multiple sclerosis external icon, other physical or mental health conditions can occur. Some of these other health conditions are also called secondary conditions and might include: bowel or bladder problems Fatigue Injury Mental Health and depression Overweight and obesity Pain Pressure sores or ulcers some disabilities, such as spinal cord injuries, can affect how well persons bladder and bowel works. Learn about bowel and bladder concerns for people with disabilities external icon Fatigue is a feeling of weariness, tiredness, or lack of energy. Fatigue can affect the way a person thinks and feels. It can also interfere with people's activities of daily living. Injuriesincluding unintentional injury, homicide, and suicideare leading causes of death for people 1 through 44 years of age. Consequences of injuries can include physical, emotional, and financial consequences that can affect the lives of individuals, their families, and society. Mental health is how we think, feel, and act as we cope with life. People with disabilities report higher rates of stress and depression than people without disabilities. There are different ways to treat depression. Exercise can be effective for some people. Counseling or medication also might be needed Children and adults with disabilities are less likely to be of healthy weight and more likely to be obese than children and adults without disabilities. Overweight and obesity can have serious health consequences for all people. Pain is commonly reported by people with many types of disabilities. For some, pain can affect functioning and activities of daily living. The length of time a person experiences pain can be classified as either long term or short term. Learn about pain associated with specific types of disabilities external icon Pressure ulcersalso know as bed sores, pressure sores, or decubitus ulcersare wounds caused by constant pressure on skin. They usually develop on body parts such as the elbow, heel, hip, shoulder, back, and back of the head. People with disabilities WHO are bedridden or use wheelchairs are at risk of developing pressure sores.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Performance

In order to achieve erection, three conditions must occur: nerves to penis must be functioning properly. Blood circulation to the penis must be adequate. There must be stimulus from the brain. If there is something interfering with any or all of these conditions, full erection will be prevent. Vascular Disease: Vascular diseases are those that affect blood vessels. These diseases include atherosclerosis, hypertension, and high cholesterol. These diseases, which account for 70 % of physical-related causes of ED, restrict blood flow to the heart, brain, and-In case of ED-to penis. Atherosclerosis alone accounts for 50 %-60 % of ED cases in men over age 60. Diabetes: Diabetes can cause nerve and artery damage that can make achieving erection difficult. Between 35 % and 50 % of men with Diabetes experience ED. Kidney Disease: Kidney Disease can cause chemical changes that affect hormones, circulation, nerve function, and energy level. These changes can lower libido or sexual ability. Drugs Use to treat Kidney Disease may also cause ED. Neurological diseases: nervous system plays a vital part in achieving and maintaining erection. It is common for men with conditions such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, alzheimers Disease, Parkinsons Disease, and spinal cord injuries to experience ED. This is due to interruption in transmission of nerve impulses between the brain and penis. Prostate cancer: Prostate cancer doesnt cause ED on its own, but treatment for Prostate cancer can lead to erectile problems. Psychological factors, such as stress, Depression, and Performance anxiety injury to penis chronic illness certain medications condition called Peyronie's Disease operations For Prostate, bladder, and colon cancer venous leak: If veins in the penis cannot prevent blood from leaving the penis during erection, erection cannot be maintain. This is know as venous leak, and can be the result of injury, disease, or stress. Tobacco, alcohol, or drug use: All three of these substances can damage person's blood vessels and / or restrict blood flow to the penis, causing ED. Smoking in particular plays a large role in causing ED in people with atherosclerosis. Prescription drugs: There are more than 200 types of prescription drugs that may cause ED.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Safety

World Health Assembly resolution WHA60. 26, Workers Health: Global Plan of Action, urges Member States to work towards full coverage of all workers, particularly those in informal sector, agriculture, small enterprises and migrant workers with essential interventions and basic Occupational Health services for primary prevention of occupational and work-related diseases and injuries. WHOs propose a strategy to improve health coverage of workers, including those working in small companies and informal sector is to work with countries following strategic directions. Increasing skills of primary care providers-general practitioners, nurses, environmental and public health technicians, and community health workers-to provide basic Occupational Health services such as advice on improving working conditions, monitoring the health status of workers and detecting most common occupational diseases among workers in small companies, rural areas, farms, informal sector and among migrants. Expanding coverage and improving the quality of specialized Occupational Health services in big and medium-size companies and industrial zones, with focus on assessing and reducing Occupational risks; surveillance and improvement of work environment, work organization, machinery and equipment; early detection and rehabilitation of Occupational diseases; promotion of Health; and provision of first aid at workplace. Establishing connections between Occupational Health services and primary care centres to facilitate care of workers suffering from chronic diseases and their return to work after long-term absence due to sickness. Developing workplace health initiatives, tools and methods for empowering companies and other work settings to take better care of health, without unduly relying on professional health services. Including Occupational Health in pre-and in-service training of all frontline health providers and certain medical specialists dealing with cancer, skin, respiratory and neurological diseases, and musculoskeletal disorders. Developing roadmaps for scaling up access of workers to essential interventions and services, as defined nationally, for prevention and control of occupational and work-related diseases. These include monitoring coverage and setting realistic targets in line with available human and financial resources for health and local traditions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What is the immune system?

Sometimes, a person may have an immune response even though there is no real threat. This can lead to problems such as allergies, asthma, and autoimmune diseases. If you have autoimmune disease, your immune system attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Other immune system problems happen when your immune system does not work correctly. These problems include immunodeficiency diseases. If you have immunodeficiency disease, you get sick more often. Your infections may last longer and can be more serious and harder to treat. They are often genetic disorders. There are other diseases that can affect your immune system. For example, HIV is a virus that harms your immune system by destroying your white blood cells. If HIV is not treat, it can lead to AIDS. People with AIDS have badly damaged immune systems. They get increasing number of severe illnesses.


Innate vs. adaptive immunity

Everyones immune system is different but, as general rule, it becomes stronger during adulthood as, by this time, we have been exposed to more pathogens and develop more immunity. That is why teens and adults tend to get sick less often than children. Once the antibody has been produce, copy remains in the body so that if the same antigen appears again, it can be dealt with more quickly. That is why with some diseases, such as chickenpox, you only get it once as the body has a chickenpox antibody store, ready and waiting to destroy it next time it arrive. This is called immunity. There are three types of immunity in humans called innate, adaptive, and passive:

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Alternative medicine

Users of CAM and TM approaches choose health practices that resonate with their beliefs about health. Although economic factors play a role in this choice, underlying incentives are not always predictable. For instance, common misconception is that patients opt for CAM and TM services because they are cheaper alternatives to conventional medical care. Even though there are certainly instances when the cost of treatment using CAM or TM is much cheaper than the cost of accessing conventional medical service, several studies have found that CAM and TM cost the same or more than conventional treatments for the same conditions. At least one study has shown that financial considerations are rarely the primary factor in choosing traditional healer, ranking behind such reasons as confidence in treatment, ease of access, and convenience. In the United States, average cost of a single visit to a Navajo healer was US 388, and the average annual cost of using a traditional healer represents roughly a fifth of the reported annual income of respondents in the survey. The high cost of using healer was cited as the most common barrier to seeking care from this source. In Kenya, average charge per patient per visit to TM practitioner was K Sh 46, which was significantly greater than the average charge per visit even in private health care facilities. Finally, survey in Zimbabwe reported that the median cost of consulting a herbalist was Z 23 per visit, compared with Z 1 for government clinic and Z 29 for private doctor. The same survey found that outcomes tend to be better when patients go to government clinics than when patients consult herbalists. TM is not always more expensive than conventional Medicine, however. Survey respondents in Ghana report that the cost of malaria treatment at health clinic ranges from ¢1 900 to ¢3 000, treatment at home using drugs bought from pharmacies or health care workers ranges between ¢200 and ¢1 000, and treatment by herbalist was virtually free. Another common misconception is that the poor are more likely to use TM. At least one study shows that this may not be true. In Zimbabwe, mean monthly income of households visiting herbalist, Z 877, was greater than the mean monthly income of households using government clinics, Z 718. Although some traditional healers charge more than conventional practitioners, their fees may be negotiable, method of payment may be flexible, and payment may be contingent on outcome. The Availability of outcome-contingent contract favors TM over Western Medicine when disease condition requires providers to both exert effort in curing patients and induce patients to comply with their recommendations. Nonetheless, this strategy may be difficult to apply to the larger health care system. Furthermore, patients tend to seek care from traditional healers for conditions such as mental illness, impotence, and chronic disorders, which they perceive as requiring greater involvement by extended family and kinship group.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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